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      2019

      How To Install WordPress with OpenLiteSpeed on Ubuntu 18.04


      Introduction

      WordPress is an open-source content management system (CMS). The most popular CMS in the world, WordPress allows you to set up blogs and websites on top of a MySQL database backend, using PHP to execute scripts and process dynamic content.

      OpenLiteSpeed is an optimized open-source web server that you can use to manage and serve websites. OpenLiteSpeed has some useful features that make it a solid choice for many installations: Apache-compatible rewrite rules, a built-in web-based administration interface, and customized PHP processing optimized for the server.

      This guide will walk through the process of installing and setting up a WordPress instance on Ubuntu 18.04 using the OpenLiteSpeed web server. Because both WordPress and OpenLiteSpeed can be administered through a web browser, this configuration is ideal for those who do not have regular access to an SSH session or those who may not feel comfortable managing a web server via the command line.

      Prerequisites

      Before you begin this guide, you will need the following:

      Step 1 — Creating a Database and Database User for WordPress

      WordPress uses MySQL to manage and store site and user information. You already have MySQL installed, but as a preparatory step you need to make a database and a user for WordPress to use.

      To get started, connect to your server using SSH:

      Then log in to the root MySQL account:

      Note: If you completed Step 3 in the prerequisite MySQL tutorial and configured your root MySQL user to authenticate with the mysql_native_password plugin, you’ll need to log in with the following command:

      Then enter your root user’s password when prompted.

      From the MySQL prompt, create a database with the following command. Here, we will name this database wordpress to keep things simple, but you can name it whatever you’d like:

      • CREATE DATABASE wordpress DEFAULT CHARACTER SET utf8 COLLATE utf8_unicode_ci;

      Then, create a user and grant it privileges over the database you just created. Again, you can give this user any name, but for simplicity we will name it wordpressuser. Also, be sure to change password to a strong password of your own choosing:

      • GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON wordpress.* TO 'wordpressuser'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'password';

      Then, run FLUSH PRIVILEGES which tells the server to reload the grant tables and put your new changes into effect:

      Following that, you can close the MySQL prompt:

      You’re done setting up your MySQL installation to work with WordPress. Next, we will install a few PHP extensions.

      Step 2 — Installing Additional PHP Extensions

      In the prerequisite OpenLiteSpeed tutorial, you installed the lsphp73 package. This is a compilation of PHP optimized for OpenLiteSpeed which uses the LiteSpeed SAPI to communicate with external applications. Depending on your needs, WordPress may require other certain PHP extensions in order to function as desired.

      To install some PHP extensions commonly used with WordPress, run the following command:

      • sudo apt install lsphp73-common lsphp73-curl lsphp73-imagick lsphp73-imap lsphp73-json lsphp73-memcached lsphp73-mysql lsphp73-opcache lsphp73-redis

      Note: The packages in this command may not cover every use case. For a full list of the PHP 7.3 extensions available from the LiteSpeed repository you added to your server in the prerequisite tutorial, see the LiteSpeed Wiki.

      Following this, you can move on to downloading and setting up WordPress on your server.

      Step 3 — Downloading WordPress

      Now that your server software is configured, you can install and set up WordPress. For security reasons in particular, it is always recommended that you get the latest version of WordPress directly from their site.

      Change into a writable directory and then download the compressed release by typing:

      • cd /tmp
      • curl -O https://wordpress.org/latest.tar.gz

      Extract the compressed file to create the WordPress directory structure:

      We will move these files into our document root momentarily, but first we will create a few files and directories that the WordPress installation will depend on.

      OpenLiteSpeed supports .htaccess files. This is important for our purposes, since WordPress uses .htaccess files to create and manage permalinks.

      Add a dummy .htaccess file so that it will be available for WordPress to use later:

      • touch /tmp/wordpress/.htaccess

      Next, copy over the sample configuration file to the filename that WordPress actually reads:

      • cp /tmp/wordpress/wp-config-sample.php /tmp/wordpress/wp-config.php

      Additionally, create the upgrade directory so that WordPress won’t run into permissions issues when trying to do this on its own following an update to its software:

      • mkdir /tmp/wordpress/wp-content/upgrade

      Then, copy the entire contents of the directory into your document root. OpenLiteSpeed comes with a default virtual host named Example located in the /usr/local/lsws/ directory. The document root for the Example virtual host is the html subdirectory:

      • sudo cp -a /tmp/wordpress/. /usr/local/lsws/Example/html/wordpress

      Notice that this command includes a dot at the end of the source directory to indicate that everything within the directory should be copied, including hidden files (like the .htaccess file you created):

      With that, you’ve successfully installed WordPress onto your web server and performed some of the initial configuration steps. Next, we’ll go through some further configuration changes that will give WordPress the privileges it needs to function securely and access the MySQL database and user account you created previously.

      Step 4 — Configuring the WordPress Directory

      Before we can go through the web-based setup process for WordPress, we need to adjust some items in our WordPress directory.

      Start by giving ownership of all the files in the directory to the nobody user and the nogroup group, which the OpenLiteSpeed web server runs as by default. The following chown command will grant OpenLiteSpeed the ability to read and write files in the wordpress directory, allowing it to serve the website and perform automatic updates:

      • sudo chown -R nobody:nogroup /usr/local/lsws/Example/html/wordpress

      Next run two find commands to set the correct permissions on the WordPress directories and files:

      • sudo find /usr/local/lsws/Example/html/wordpress/ -type d -exec chmod 750 {} ;
      • sudo find /usr/local/lsws/Example/html/wordpress/ -type f -exec chmod 640 {} ;

      These should be a reasonable permissions set to start with, although some plugins and procedures might require additional tweaks.

      Following this, you will need to make some changes to the main WordPress configuration file.

      When you open the file, your first objective will be to adjust some secret keys to provide some security for your installation. WordPress provides a secure generator for these values so that you do not have to try to come up with good values on your own. These are only used internally, so it doesn’t hurt usability to have complex, secure values here.

      To grab secure values from the WordPress secret key generator, type:

      • curl -s https://api.wordpress.org/secret-key/1.1/salt/

      You will get back unique values that look something like this:

      Warning! It is important that you request unique values each time. Do NOT copy the values shown below!

      Output

      define('AUTH_KEY', '1jl/vqfs<XhdXoAPz9 DO NOT COPY THESE VALUES c_j{iwqD^<+c9.k<J@4H'); define('SECURE_AUTH_KEY', 'E2N-h2]Dcvp+aS/p7X DO NOT COPY THESE VALUES {Ka(f;rv?Pxf})CgLi-3'); define('LOGGED_IN_KEY', 'W(50,{W^,OPB%PB<JF DO NOT COPY THESE VALUES 2;y&,2m%3]R6DUth[;88'); define('NONCE_KEY', 'll,4UC)7ua+8<!4VM+ DO NOT COPY THESE VALUES #`DXF+[$atzM7 o^-C7g'); define('AUTH_SALT', 'koMrurzOA+|L_lG}kf DO NOT COPY THESE VALUES 07VC*Lj*lD&?3w!BT#-'); define('SECURE_AUTH_SALT', 'p32*p,]z%LZ+pAu:VY DO NOT COPY THESE VALUES C-?y+K0DK_+F|0h{!_xY'); define('LOGGED_IN_SALT', 'i^/G2W7!-1H2OQ+t$3 DO NOT COPY THESE VALUES t6**bRVFSD[Hi])-qS`|'); define('NONCE_SALT', 'Q6]U:K?j4L%Z]}h^q7 DO NOT COPY THESE VALUES 1% ^qUswWgn+6&xqHN&%');

      These are configuration lines that you will paste directly into your configuration file to set secure keys. Copy the output you received to your clipboard, and then open the WordPress configuration file located in your document root:

      • sudo nano /usr/local/lsws/Example/html/wordpress/wp-config.php

      Find the section that contains the dummy values for those settings. It will look something like this:

      /var/www/wordpress/wp-config.php

      . . .
      
      define('AUTH_KEY',         'put your unique phrase here');
      define('SECURE_AUTH_KEY',  'put your unique phrase here');
      define('LOGGED_IN_KEY',    'put your unique phrase here');
      define('NONCE_KEY',        'put your unique phrase here');
      define('AUTH_SALT',        'put your unique phrase here');
      define('SECURE_AUTH_SALT', 'put your unique phrase here');
      define('LOGGED_IN_SALT',   'put your unique phrase here');
      define('NONCE_SALT',       'put your unique phrase here');
      
      . . .
      

      Delete these lines and paste in the values you copied from the command line:

      /var/www/wordpress/wp-config.php

      . . .
      
      define('AUTH_KEY',         'VALUES COPIED FROM THE COMMAND LINE');
      define('SECURE_AUTH_KEY',  'VALUES COPIED FROM THE COMMAND LINE');
      define('LOGGED_IN_KEY',    'VALUES COPIED FROM THE COMMAND LINE');
      define('NONCE_KEY',        'VALUES COPIED FROM THE COMMAND LINE');
      define('AUTH_SALT',        'VALUES COPIED FROM THE COMMAND LINE');
      define('SECURE_AUTH_SALT', 'VALUES COPIED FROM THE COMMAND LINE');
      define('LOGGED_IN_SALT',   'VALUES COPIED FROM THE COMMAND LINE');
      define('NONCE_SALT',       'VALUES COPIED FROM THE COMMAND LINE');
      
      . . .
      

      Next, modify the database connection settings at the top of the file. You need to adjust the database name, database user, and the associated password that you configured within MySQL.

      The other change you must make is to set the method that WordPress should use to write to the filesystem. Since we’ve given the web server permission to write where it needs to, we can explicitly set the filesystem method to direct. Failure to set this with our current settings would result in WordPress prompting for FTP credentials when you perform certain actions.

      This setting can be added below the database connection settings, or anywhere else in the file:

      /var/www/wordpress/wp-config.php

      . . .
      
      define('DB_NAME', 'wordpress');
      
      /** MySQL database username */
      define('DB_USER', 'wordpressuser');
      
      /** MySQL database password */
      define('DB_PASSWORD', 'password');
      
      . . .
      
      define('FS_METHOD', 'direct');
      

      Save and close the file when you are finished.

      At this point, WordPress is not quite fully configured on your system, as you still need to apply a few finishing touches before you can start publishing content. In order to do that, though, you’ll first need to make a few configuration changes to your OpenLiteSpeed installation.

      Step 6 — Configuring OpenLiteSpeed

      Currently, you have WordPress installed on your Ubuntu server, but your OpenLiteSpeed installation hasn’t yet been configured to serve it. In this step, we’ll access the OpenLiteSpeed administrative interface and make a few changes to your server’s configuration.

      In your preferred web browser, navigate to the OpenLiteSpeed administrative interface. You can find this by entering your server’s public IP address or the domain name associated with it, followed by :7080, in your browser’s address bar:

      https://server_domain_or_IP:7080
      

      There, you will be presented with a login screen. Enter the username and password you defined in the prerequisite OpenLiteSpeed installation tutorial:

      OpenLiteSpeed login screen

      From the OpenLiteSpeed console, find and click on Server Configuration in the left-hand sidebar menu. Then navigate to the External App tab, find the row of the LiteSpeed SAPI App, and click on its Edit button:

      Server Configuration page

      Recall that in the prerequisite OpenLiteSpeed tutorial, you installed the lsphp73 package, a compilation of PHP optimized to work with OpenLiteSpeed through the LiteSpeed SAPI. However, the default settings in the External App page point to lsphp rather than lsphp73. Because of this, your OpenLiteSpeed installation won’t be able to correctly execute PHP scripts.

      To correct this, change the Name field to lsphp73, change the Address field to uds://tmp/lshttpd/lsphp73.sock, and change the Command field to read $SERVER_ROOT/lsphp73/bin/lsphp:

      External App changes

      After making those changes, click on the Save icon in the upper right-hand corner of the LiteSpeed SAPI App box.

      Next, click on Virtual Hosts in the left-hand menu. On the Virtual Hosts page, find the virtual host you plan to use and click on its View icon. Here, we’ll use the default Example virtual host:

      Virtual Hosts page

      Navigate to the virtual host’s General tab. There, find the General section, and click on its Edit button:

      Virtual Hosts General tab

      OpenLiteSpeed looks at the contents of the Document Root field for content to serve. Because all of your WordPress content and files are stored in the wordpress directory you created earlier, update the Document Root field to point to that directory. To do this, all you need to do is append wordpress/ to the end of the default value:

      Virtual Hosts General changes

      Click the Save icon to save this change.

      Next, you need to enable index.php files so that they can be used to process requests that aren’t handled by static files. This will allow the main logic of WordPress to function correctly.

      While still in the General tab, scroll down to find the Index Files section and click on its Edit icon:

      Virtual hosts Index Files page

      In the Index Files field, precede index.html with index.php,. By putting index.php before index.html, you’re allowing PHP index files to take precedence. After updating this field, it will look like this:

      Virtual Hosts index files changes

      Be sure to click the Save icon before continuing.

      Next, navigate to the virtual host’s Rewrite tab. Find the Rewrite Control section and press the Edit button:

      Virtual Hosts Rewrite page

      Set both the Enable Rewrite and Auto Load from .htaccess options to Yes by clicking the respective radial buttons. Configuring rewrite instructions in this fashion will allow you to use permalinks within your WordPress installation:

      Virtual Hosts rewrite changes

      Click the Save icon after making those changes.

      The default virtual host that is included with the OpenLiteSpeed installation includes some password protected areas to showcase OpenLiteSpeed’s user authentication features. WordPress includes its own authentication mechanisms and we will not be using the file-based authentication included in OpenLiteSpeed. We should get rid of these in order to minimize the stray configuration fragments active on our WordPress installation.

      First, click on the Security tab, and then click the Delete button next to SampleProtectedArea within the Realms List table:

      OpenLiteSpeed security realm list

      You will be asked to confirm the deletion. Click Delete to proceed.

      Next, click on the Context tab. In the Context List, delete the /protected/ context that was associated with the security realm you just deleted:

      OpenLiteSpeed delete protected context

      Again, you will have to confirm the deletion by clicking Delete.

      You can safely delete any or all of the other contexts as well using the same technique, as we will not be needing them. We specifically deleted the /protected/ context because otherwise an error would be produced due to the deletion of its associated security realm (which we just removed in the Security tab).

      Following that, press the green Graceful Restart icon in the upper-right corner of the OpenLiteSpeed console. This will restart the OpenLiteSpeed server, causing the changes you’ve made to go into effect:

      Graceful Restart icon location

      With that, your OpenLiteSpeed server is fully configured. You’re ready to finish setting up WordPress in your browser.

      Step 7 — Completing the Installation through the WordPress Interface

      Now that the server configuration is complete, we can complete the installation through the web interface.

      In your web browser, navigate to your server’s domain name or public IP address:

      http://server_domain_or_IP
      

      Select the language you would like to use:

      WordPress language selection

      Next, you will come to the main setup page. Select a name for your WordPress site and choose a username (it is recommended not to choose something like “admin” for security purposes). A strong password is generated automatically. Save this password or select an alternative strong password.

      Enter your email address and select whether you want to discourage search engines from indexing your site:

      WordPress setup installation

      When ready, click the Install WordPress button. You’ll be taken to a page that prompts you to log in:

      WordPress login prompt

      Once you log in, you will be taken to the WordPress administration dashboard:

      WordPress login prompt

      From the dashboard, you can begin making changes to your site’s theme and publishing content.

      Conclusion

      By completing this guide, you installed and configured a WordPress instance on Ubuntu 18.04 server running OpenLiteSpeed. Some common next steps are to choose the permalinks setting for your posts (which can be found in Settings > Permalinks) or to select a new theme (in Appearance > Themes). If this is your first time using WordPress, explore the interface a bit to get acquainted with your new CMS.

      To enhance your new WordPress site’s security, we recommend that you configure it to function with SSL so it can serve content over HTTPS. Check out this tutorial from the OpenLiteSpeed documentation to install LetsEncrypt and set this up.



      Source link

      How To Set Up the code-server Cloud IDE Platform on Ubuntu 18.04


      The author selected the Free and Open Source Fund to receive a donation as part of the Write for DOnations program.

      Introduction

      With developer tools moving to the cloud, creation and adoption of cloud IDE (Integrated Development Environment) platforms is growing. Cloud IDEs allow for real-time collaboration between developer teams to work in a unified development environment that minimizes incompatibilities and enhances productivity. Accessible through web browsers, cloud IDEs are available from every type of modern device.

      code-server is Microsoft Visual Studio Code running on a remote server and accessible directly from your browser. Visual Studio Code is a modern code editor with integrated Git support, a code debugger, smart autocompletion, and customizable and extensible features. This means that you can use various devices running different operating systems, and always have a consistent development environment on hand.

      In this tutorial, you will set up the code-server cloud IDE platform on your Ubuntu 18.04 machine and expose it at your domain, secured with free Let’s Encrypt TLS certificates. In the end, you’ll have Microsoft Visual Studio Code running on your Ubuntu 18.04 server, available at your domain and protected with a password.

      Prerequisites

      • A server running Ubuntu 18.04 with at least 2GB RAM, root access, and a sudo, non-root account. You can set this up by following this initial server setup guide.

      • Nginx installed on your server. For a guide on how to do this, complete Steps 1 to 4 of How To Install Nginx on Ubuntu 18.04.

      • Both of the following DNS records set up for your server. You can follow this introduction to DigitalOcean DNS for details on how to add them.

        • An A record with your-domain pointing to your server’s public IP address.
        • An A record with www.your-domain pointing to your server’s public IP address.
      • A fully registered domain name to host code-server, pointed to your server. This tutorial will use code-server.your-domain throughout. You can purchase a domain name on Namecheap, get one for free on Freenom, or use the domain registrar of your choice.

      Step 1 — Installing code-server

      In this section, you will set up code-server on your server. This entails downloading the latest version and creating a systemd service that will keep code-server always running in the background. You’ll also specify a restart policy for the service, so that code-server stays available after possible crashes or reboots.

      You’ll store all data pertaining to code-server in a folder named ~/code-server. Create it by running the following command:

      Navigate to it:

      You’ll need to head over to the Github releases page of code-server and pick the latest Linux build (the file will contain ‘linux’ in its name). At the time of writing, the latest version was 2.1692. Download it using wget by running the following command:

      • wget https://github.com/cdr/code-server/releases/download/2.1692-vsc1.39.2/code-server2.1692-vsc1.39.2-linux-x86_64.tar.gz

      Then, unpack the archive by running:

      • tar -xzvf code-server2.1692-vsc1.39.2-linux-x86_64.tar.gz

      You’ll get a folder named exactly as the original file you downloaded, which contains the code-server executable. Navigate to it:

      • cd code-server2.1692-vsc1.39.2-linux-x86_64

      Copy the code-server executable to /usr/local/bin so you’ll be able to access it system wide by running the following command:

      • sudo cp code-server /usr/local/bin

      Next, create a folder for code-server, where it will store user data:

      • sudo mkdir /var/lib/code-server

      Now that you’ve downloaded code-server and made it available system-wide, you will create a systemd service to keep code-server running in the background at all times.

      You’ll store the service configuration in a file named code-server.service, in the /lib/systemd/system directory, where systemd stores its services. Create it using your text editor:

      • sudo nano /lib/systemd/system/code-server.service

      Add the following lines:

      /lib/systemd/system/code-server.service

      [Unit]
      Description=code-server
      After=nginx.service
      
      [Service]
      Type=simple
      Environment=PASSWORD=your_password
      ExecStart=/usr/local/bin/code-server --host 127.0.0.1 --user-data-dir /var/lib/code-server --auth password
      Restart=always
      
      [Install]
      WantedBy=multi-user.target
      

      Here you first specify the description of the service. Then, you state that the nginx service must be started before this one. After the [Unit] section, you define the type of the service (simple means that the process should be simply run) and provide the command that will be executed.

      You also specify that the global code-server executable should be started with a few arguments specific to code-server. --host 127.0.0.1 binds it to localhost, so it’s only directly accessible from inside of your server. --user-data-dir /var/lib/code-server sets its user data directory, and --auth password specifies that it should authenticate visitors with a password, specified in the PASSWORD environment variable declared on the line above it.

      Remember to replace your_password with your desired password, then save and close the file.

      The next line tells systemd to restart code-server in all malfunction events (for example, when it crashes or the process is killed). The [Install] section orders systemd to start this service when it becomes possible to log in to your server.

      Start the code-server service by running the following command:

      • sudo systemctl start code-server

      Check that it’s started correctly by observing its status:

      • sudo systemctl status code-server

      You’ll see output similar to:

      Output

      ● code-server.service - code-server Loaded: loaded (/lib/systemd/system/code-server.service; disabled; vendor preset: enabled) Active: active (running) since Mon 2019-12-09 20:07:28 UTC; 4s ago Main PID: 5216 (code-server) Tasks: 23 (limit: 2362) CGroup: /system.slice/code-server.service ├─5216 /usr/local/bin/code-server --host 127.0.0.1 --user-data-dir /var/lib/code-server --auth password └─5240 /usr/local/bin/code-server --host 127.0.0.1 --user-data-dir /var/lib/code-server --auth password Dec 09 20:07:28 code-server-ubuntu-1804 systemd[1]: Started code-server. Dec 09 20:07:29 code-server-ubuntu-1804 code-server[5216]: info Server listening on http://127.0.0.1:8080 Dec 09 20:07:29 code-server-ubuntu-1804 code-server[5216]: info - Using custom password for authentication Dec 09 20:07:29 code-server-ubuntu-1804 code-server[5216]: info - Not serving HTTPS

      To make code-server start automatically after a server reboot, enable its service by running the following command:

      • sudo systemctl enable code-server

      In this step, you’ve downloaded code-server and made it available globally. Then, you’ve created a systemd service for it and enabled it, so code-server will start at every server boot. Next, you’ll expose it at your domain by configuring Nginx to serve as a reverse proxy between the visitor and code-server.

      Step 2 — Exposing code-server at Your Domain

      In this section, you will configure Nginx as a reverse proxy for code-server.

      As you have learned in the Nginx prerequisite step, its site configuration files are stored under /etc/nginx/sites-available and must later be symlinked to /etc/nginx/sites-enabled to become active.

      You’ll store the configuration for exposing code-server at your domain in a file named code-server.conf, under /etc/nginx/sites-available. Start off by creating it using your editor:

      • sudo nano /etc/nginx/sites-available/code-server.conf

      Add the following lines:

      /etc/nginx/sites-available/code-server.conf

      server {
          listen 80;
          listen [::]:80;
      
          server_name code-server.your-domain;
      
          location / {
              proxy_pass http://localhost:8080/;
              proxy_set_header Upgrade $http_upgrade;
              proxy_set_header Connection upgrade;
              proxy_set_header Accept-Encoding gzip;
          }
      }
      

      Replace code-server.your-domain with your desired domain, then save and close the file.

      In this file, you define that Nginx should listen to HTTP port 80. Then, you specify a server_name that tells Nginx for which domain to accept requests and apply this particular configuration. In the next block, for the root location (/), you specify that requests should be passed back and forth to code-server running at localhost:8080. The next three lines (starting with proxy_set_header) order Nginx to carry over some HTTP request headers that are needed for correct functioning of WebSockets, which code-server extensively uses.

      To make this site configuration active, you will need to create a symlink of it in the /etc/nginx/sites-enabled folder by running:

      • sudo ln -s /etc/nginx/sites-available/code-server.conf /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/code-server.conf

      To test the validity of the configuration, run the following command:

      You’ll see the following output:

      Output

      nginx: the configuration file /etc/nginx/nginx.conf syntax is ok nginx: configuration file /etc/nginx/nginx.conf test is successful

      For the configuration to take effect, you’ll need to restart Nginx:

      • sudo systemctl restart nginx

      You now have your code-server installation accessible at your domain. In the next step, you’ll secure it by applying a free Let’s Encrypt TLS certificate.

      Step 3 — Securing Your Domain

      In this section, you will secure your domain using a Let’s Encrypt TLS certificate, which you’ll provision using Certbot.

      To install the latest version of Certbot, you’ll need to add its package repository to your server by running the following command:

      • sudo add-apt-repository ppa:certbot/certbot

      You’ll need to press ENTER to accept.

      Then, install Certbot and its Nginx plugin:

      • sudo apt install python-certbot-nginx

      As part of the prerequisites, you have enabled ufw (Uncomplicated Firewall) and configured it to allow unencrypted HTTP traffic. To be able to access the secured site, you’ll need to configure it to accept encrypted traffic by running the following command:

      The output will be:

      Output

      Rule added Rule added (v6)

      Similarly to Nginx, you’ll need to reload it for the configuration to take effect:

      The output will show:

      Output

      Firewall reloaded

      Then, in your browser, navigate to the domain you used for code-server. You will see the code-server login prompt.

      code-server login prompt

      code-server is asking you for your password. Enter the one you set in the previous step and press Enter IDE. You’ll now enter code-server and immediately see its editor GUI.

      code-server GUI

      Now that you’ve checked that code-server is correctly exposed at your domain, you’ll install Let’s Encrypt TLS certificates to secure it, using Certbot.

      To request certificates for your domain, run the following command:

      • sudo certbot --nginx -d code-server.your-domain

      In this command, you run certbot to request certificates for your domain—you pass the domain name with the -d parameter. The --nginx flag tells it to automatically change Nginx site configuration to support HTTPS. Remember to replace code-server.your-domain with your domain name.

      If this is your first time running Certbot, you’ll be asked to provide an email address for urgent notices and to accept the EFF’s Terms of Service. Certbot will then request certificates for your domain from Let’s Encrypt. It will then ask you if you’d like to redirect all HTTP traffic to HTTPS:

      Output

      Please choose whether or not to redirect HTTP traffic to HTTPS, removing HTTP access. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1: No redirect - Make no further changes to the webserver configuration. 2: Redirect - Make all requests redirect to secure HTTPS access. Choose this for new sites, or if you're confident your site works on HTTPS. You can undo this change by editing your web server's configuration. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Select the appropriate number [1-2] then [enter] (press 'c' to cancel):

      It is recommended to select the second option in order to maximize security. After you input your selection, press ENTER.

      The output will be similar to this:

      Output

      IMPORTANT NOTES: - Congratulations! Your certificate and chain have been saved at: /etc/letsencrypt/live/code-server.your-domain/fullchain.pem Your key file has been saved at: /etc/letsencrypt/live/code-server.your-domain/privkey.pem Your cert will expire on ... To obtain a new or tweaked version of this certificate in the future, simply run certbot again with the "certonly" option. To non-interactively renew *all* of your certificates, run "certbot renew" - Your account credentials have been saved in your Certbot configuration directory at /etc/letsencrypt. You should make a secure backup of this folder now. This configuration directory will also contain certificates and private keys obtained by Certbot so making regular backups of this folder is ideal. - If you like Certbot, please consider supporting our work by: Donating to ISRG / Let's Encrypt: https://letsencrypt.org/donate Donating to EFF: https://eff.org/donate-le

      This means that Certbot has sucessfully generated TLS certificates and applied them to the Nginx configuration for your domain. You can now reload your code-server domain in your browser and observe a padlock to the left of the site address, which means that your connection is properly secured.

      Now that you have code-server accessible at your domain through a secured Nginx reverse proxy, you’re ready to review the user interface of code-server.

      Step 4 — Using the code-server Interface

      In this section, you’ll use some of the features of the code-server interface. Since code-server is Visual Studio Code running in the cloud, it has the same interface as the standalone desktop edition.

      On the left-hand side of the IDE, there is a vertical row of six buttons opening the most commonly used features in a side panel known as the Activity Bar.

      code-server GUI - Sidepanel

      This bar is customizable so you can move these views to a different order or remove them from the bar. By default, the first button opens the general menu in a dropdown, while the second view opens the Explorer panel that provides tree-like navigation of the project’s structure. You can manage your folders and files here—creating, deleting, moving, and renaming them as necessary. The next view provides access to a search and replace functionality.

      Following this, in the default order, is your view of the source control systems, like Git. Visual Studio code also supports other source control providers and you can find further instructions for source control work flows with the editor in this documentation.

      Git pane with context-menu open

      The debugger option on the Activity Bar provides all the common actions for debugging in the panel. Visual Studio Code comes with built-in support for the Node.js runtime debugger and any language that transpiles to Javascript. For other languages you can install extensions for the required debugger. You can save debugging configurations in the launch.json file.

      Debugger View with launch.json open

      The final view in the Activity Bar provides a menu to access available extensions on the Marketplace.

      code-server GUI - Tabs

      The central part of the GUI is your editor, which you can separate by tabs for your code editing. You can change your editing view to a grid system or to side-by-side files.

      Editor Grid View

      After creating a new file through the File menu, an empty file will open in a new tab, and once saved, the file’s name will be viewable in the Explorer side panel. Creating folders can be done by right clicking on the Explorer sidebar and clicking on New Folder. You can expand a folder by clicking on its name as well as dragging and dropping files and folders to upper parts of the hierarchy to move them to a new location.

      code-server GUI - New Folder

      You can gain access to a terminal by entering CTRL+SHIFT+`, or by clicking on Terminal in the upper menu dropdown, and selecting New Terminal. The terminal will open in a lower panel and its working directory will be set to the project’s workspace, which contains the files and folders shown in the Explorer side panel.

      You’ve explored a high-level overview of the code-server interface and reviewed some of the most commonly used features.

      Conclusion

      You now have code-server, a versatile cloud IDE, installed on your Ubuntu 18.04 server, exposed at your domain and secured using Let’s Encrypt certificates. You can now work on projects individually, as well as in a team-collaboration setting. Running a cloud IDE frees resources on your local machine and allows you to scale the resources when needed. For further information, see the Visual Studio Code documentation for additional features and detailed instructions on other components of code-server.

      If you would like to run code-server on your DigitalOcean Kubernetes cluster check out our tutorial on How To Set Up the code-server Cloud IDE Platform on DigitalOcean Kubernetes.



      Source link

      Solving Real World Problems With Bash Scripts – A Tutorial


      Updated by Linode Contributed by Mihalis Tsoukalos

      Introduction

      This guide presents some of the advanced capabilities of the bash shell by showing practical and fully functional bash scripts. It also illustrates how you can work with dates and times in bash scripts and how to write and use functions in bash.

      In This Guide

      In this guide, you will find the following information about bash scripts:

      Note

      This guide is written for a non-root user. Depending on your configuration, some commands might require the help of sudo in order to properly execute. If you are not familiar with the sudo command, see the Users and Groups guide.

      Functions in bash shell

      The bash scripting language has support for functions. The parameters of a function can be accessed as $1, $2, etc. and you can have as many parameters as you want. If you are interested in finding out the name of the function, you can use the FUNCNAME variable. Functions are illustrated in functions.sh, which is as follows:

      functions.sh
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      #!/bin/bash
      
      function f1 {
          echo Hello from $FUNCNAME!
          VAR="123"
      }
      
      f2() {
          p1=$1
          p2=$2
          sum=$((${p1} + ${p2}))
          echo "${sum}"
      }
      
      f1
      echo ${VAR}
      
      mySum="$(f2 1 2)"
      echo mySum = $mySum
      
      mySum="$(f2 10 -2)"
      echo mySum = $mySum

      Run the script with the following command:

      ./functions.sh
      

      The output will look like this:

        
      Hello from f1!
      123
      mySum = 3
      mySum = 8
      
      

      Note

      If you want to check whether a function parameter exists or not, you can use the statement:

      if [ -z "$1" ]
      

      Using bash Functions as Shell Commands

      This is a trick that allows you to use bash functions as shell commands. You can execute the above code as

      . ./functions.sh
      

      Notice the dot in front of the text file. After that you can use f1 as a regular command in the terminal where you executed . ./my_function.sh. You will also be able to use the f2 command with two integers of your choice to quickly calculate a sum. If you want that function to be globally available, you can put its implementation to a bash configuration file that is automatically executed by bash each time a new bash session begins. A good place to put that function implementation would be ~/.bash_profile.

      Working with Dates and Times

      Bash allows you to work with dates and times using traditional UNIX utilities such as date(1). The main difficulty many programmers run into when working with dates and times is getting or using the correct format. This is a matter of using date(1) with the correct parameters and has nothing to do with bash scripting per se. Using date(1) as date +[something] means that we want to use a custom format – this is signified by the use of + in the command line argument of date(1).

      A good way to create unique filenames is to use UNIX epoch time or, if you want your filename to be more descriptive, a date-time combination. The unique nature of the filename is derived from a focus on a higher level of detail in defining your output. If done correctly, you will never have the exact same time value even if you execute the script multiple times on the same UNIX machine.

      The example that follows will shed some light on the use of date(1).

      Using Dates and Times in bash scripts

      The code of dateTime.sh is the following:

      dateTime.sh
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      #!/bin/bash
      
      # Print default output
      echo `date`
      
      # Print current date without the time
      echo `date +"%m-%d-%y"`
      
      # Use 4 digits for year
      echo `date +"%m-%d-%Y"`
      
      # Display time only
      echo `date +"%T"`
      
      # Display 12 hour time
      echo `date +"%r"`
      
      # Time without seconds
      echo `date +"%H:%M"`
      
      # Print full date
      echo `date +"%A %d %b %Y %H:%M:%S"`
      
      # Nanoseconds
      echo Nanoseconds: `date +"%s-%N"`
      
      # Different timezone by name
      echo Timezone: `TZ=":US/Eastern" date +"%T"`
      echo Timezone: `TZ=":Europe/UK" date +"%T"`
      
      # Print epoch time - convenient for filenames
      echo `date +"%s"`
      
      # Print week number
      echo Week number: `date +"%V"`
      
      # Create unique filename
      f=`date +"%s"`
      touch $f
      ls -l $f
      rm $f
      
      # Add epoch time to existing file
      f="/tmp/test"
      touch $f
      mv $f $f.`date +"%s"`
      ls -l "$f".*
      rm "$f".*

      If you want an even more unique filename, you can also use nanoseconds when defining the behaviour of your script.

      Run the dateTime script:

      ./dateTime.sh
      

      The output of dateTime.sh will resemble the following:

        
      Fri Aug 30 13:05:09 EST 2019
      08-30-19
      08-30-2019
      13:05:09
      01:05:09 PM
      13:05
      Friday 30 Aug 2019 13:05:09
      Nanoseconds: 1567159562-373152585
      Timezone: 06:05:09
      Timezone: 10:05:09
      1567159509
      Week number: 35
      -rw-r--r--  1 mtsouk  staff  0 Aug 30 13:05 1567159509
      -rw-r--r--  1 mtsouk  wheel  0 Aug 30 13:05 /tmp/test.1567159509
      
      

      Bash scripts for Administrators

      This section will present some bash scripts that are generally helpful for UNIX system administrators and power users.

      Watching Free Disk Space

      The bash script that follows watches the free space of your hard disks and warns you when that free space drops below a given threshold – the value of the threshold is given by the user as a command line argument. Notice that if the program gets no command line argument, a default value is used as the threshold.

      freeDisk.sh
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      #!/bin/bash
      
      # default value to use if none specified
      PERCENT=30
      
      # test for command line arguement is present
      if [[ $# -le 0 ]]
      then
          printf "Using default value for threshold!n"
      # test if argument is an integer
      # if it is, use that as percent, if not use default
      else
          if [[ $1 =~ ^-?[0-9]+([0-9]+)?$ ]]
          then
              PERCENT=$1
          fi
      fi
      
      let "PERCENT += 0"
      printf "Threshold = %dn" $PERCENT
      
      df -Ph | grep -vE '^Filesystem|tmpfs|cdrom' | awk '{ print $5,$1 }' | while read data;
      do
          used=$(echo $data | awk '{print $1}' | sed s/%//g)
          p=$(echo $data | awk '{print $2}')
          if [ $used -ge $PERCENT ]
          then
              echo "WARNING: The partition "$p" has used $used% of total available space - Date: $(date)"
          fi
      done
      • The sed s/%//g command is used for omitting the percent sign from the output of df -Ph.
      • df is the command to report file system disk space usage, while the options -Ph specify POSIX output and human-readable, meaning, print sizes in powers of 1024.
      • awk(1) is used for extracting the desired fields from output of the df(1) command.

      Run ./freeDisk.sh with this command:

      ./freeDisk.sh
      

      The output of freeDisk.sh will resemble the following:

        
      Using default value for threshold!
      Threshold = 30
      WARNING: The partition "/dev/root" has used 61% of total available space - Date: Wed Aug 28 21:14:51 EEST 2019
      
      

      Note

      This script and others like it can be easily executed as cron jobs and automate tasks the UNIX way.

      Notice that the code of freeDisk.sh looks relatively complex. This is because bash is not good at the conversion between strings and numeric values – more than half of the code is for initializing the PERCENT variable correctly.

      Rotating Log Files

      The presented bash script will help you to rotate a log file after exceeding a defined file size. If the log file is connected to a server process, you might need to stop the process before the rotation and start it again after the log rotation is complete – this is not the case with rotate.sh.

      rotate.sh
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      #!/bin/bash
      
      f="/home/mtsouk/connections.data"
      
      if [ ! -f $f ]
      then
        echo $f does not exist!
        exit
      fi
      
      touch ${f}
      MAXSIZE=$((4096*1024))
      
      size=`du -b ${f} | tr -s 't' ' ' | cut -d' ' -f1`
      if [ ${size} -gt ${MAXSIZE} ]
      then
          echo Rotating!
          timestamp=`date +%s`
          mv ${f} ${f}.$timestamp
          touch ${f}
      fi
      • Note that the path to the log file /home/mtsouk/connections.data will not exist by default. You’ll need to either use a log file that already exists like kern.log on some Linux systems, or replace it with a new one.

      • Additionally, the value of MAXSIZE can be a value of your choice, and the script can be edited to suit the needs of your own configuration – you can even make changes to the existing code and provide the MAXSIZE value as a command line argument to the program.

      • The du command is used to estimate the file space usage. It’s use to track the files and directories that are consuming excessive space on the hard disk. The -b option tells this command to print the size in bytes.

      Run the rotate script with the following command:

      ./rotate.sh
      

      The output of rotate.sh when it has reached the threshold defined by MAXSIZE will resemble the following:

        
      Rotating!
      
      

      After running, two files will be created on the system. You can see them with this command:

      ls -l connections.data*
      
        
      -rw-r--r-- 1 mtsouk mtsouk       0 Aug 28 20:18 connections.data
      -rw-r--r-- 1 mtsouk mtsouk 2118655 Aug 28 20:18 connections.data.1567012710
      
      

      If you want to make rotate.sh more generic, you can provide the name of the log file as a command line argument to the bash script.

      Monitoring the Number of TCP Connections

      The presented bash script calculates the number of TCP connections on the current machine and prints that on the screen along with date and time related information.

      tcpConnect.sh
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      #!/bin/bash
      
      C=$(/bin/netstat -nt | tail -n +3 | grep ESTABLISHED | wc -l)
      D=$(date +"%m %d")
      T=$(date +"%H %M")
      printf "%s %s %sn" "$C" "$D" "$T"
      • The main reason for using the full path of netstat(1) when calling it is to make the script as secure as possible.
      • If you do not provide the full path then the script will search all the directories of the PATH variable to find that executable file.
      • Apart from the number of established connections (defined by the C variable), the script prints the month, day of the month, hour of the day, and minutes of the hour. If you want, you can also print the year and seconds.

      Execute the tcpConnect script with the following command:

      ./tcpConnect.sh
      

      The output will be similar to the following:

        
      8 08 28 16 22
      
      

      tcpConnect.sh can be easily executed as a cron(8) by adding the following to your cron file:

      */4 * * * * /home/mtsouk/bin/tcpConnect.sh >> ~/connections.data
      

      The previous cron(8) job executes tcpConnect.sh every 4 minutes, every hour of each day and appends the results to ~/connections.data in order to be able to watch or visualize them at any time.

      Additional Examples

      Sorting in bash

      The presented example will show how you can sort integer values in bash using the sort(1) utility:

      sort.sh
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      #!/bin/bash
      
      # test that at least one argument was passed
      if [[ $# -le 0 ]]
      then
          printf "Not enough arguments!n"
          exit
      fi
      
      count=1
      
      for arg in "[email protected]"
      do
          if [[ $arg =~ ^-?[0-9]+([0-9]+)?$ ]]
          then
              n[$count]=${arg}
              let "count += 1"
          else
              echo "$arg is not a valid integer!"
          fi
      done
      
      sort -n <(printf "%sn" "${n[@]}")
      • The presented technique uses an array to store all integer values before sorting them.
      • All numeric values are given as command line arguments to the script.
      • The script tests whether each command line argument is a valid integer before adding it to the n array.
      • The sorting part is done using sort -n, which sorts the array numerically. If you want to deal with strings, then you should omit the -n option.
      • The printf command, after sort -n, prints every element of the array in a separate line whereas the < character tells sort -n to use the output of printf as input.

      Run the sort script with the following command:

      ./sort.sh 100 a 1.1 1 2 3 -1
      

      The output of sort.sh will resemble the following:

        
      a is not a valid integer!
      1.1 is not a valid integer!
      -1
      1
      2
      3
      100
      
      

      A Game Written in bash

      This section will present a simple guessing game written in bash(1). The logic of the game is based on a random number generator that produces random numbers between 1 and 20 and expects from the user to guess them.

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      #!/bin/bash
      NUMGUESS=0
      
      echo "$0 - Guess a number between 1 and 20"
      
      (( secret = RANDOM % 20 + 1 ))
      
      while [[ guess -ne secret ]]
      do
          (( NUMGUESS = NUMGUESS + 1 ))
          read -p "Enter guess: " guess
      
          if (( guess < $secret )); then
              echo "Try higher..."
          elif (( $guess > $secret )); then
              echo "Try lower..."
          fi
      done
      
      printf "Yes! You guessed it in $NUMGUESS guesses.n"

      Run the guess script:

      ./guess.sh
      

      The output of guess.sh will resemble the following:

        
      ./guess.sh - Guess a number between 1 and 20
      Enter guess: 1
      Try higher...
      Enter guess: 5
      Try higher...
      Enter guess: 7
      Try lower...
      Enter guess: 6
      Yes! You guessed it in 4 guesses.
      
      

      Calculating Letter Frequencies

      The following bash script will calculate the number of times each letter appears on a file.

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      #!/bin/bash
      
      if [ -z "$1" ]; then
          echo "Usage: $0 filename."
          exit 1
      fi
      
      filename=$1
      
      while read -n 1 c
      do
          echo "$c"
      done < "$filename" | grep '[[:alpha:]]' | sort | uniq -c | sort -nr
      • The script reads the input file character by character, prints each character, and processes the output using the grep, sort, and uniq commands to count the frequency of each character.
      • The [:alpha:] pattern used by grep(1) matches all alphabetic characters and is equivalent to A-Za-z.
      • If you also want to include numeric characters in the output, you should use [:alnum:] instead.
      • Additionally, if you want the output to be sorted alphabetically instead of numerically, you can execute freqL.sh and then process its output using the sort -k2,2 command.

      Run the freqL script:

      ./freqL.sh text.txt
      

      The output of freqL.sh will resemble the following:

        
         2 b
         1 s
         1 n
         1 i
         1 h
         1 a
      
      

      Note

      The file text.txt will not exist by default. You can use a pre-existing text file to test this script, or you can create the text.txt file using a text editor of your choice.

      Timing Out read Operations

      The read builtin command supports the -t timeout option that allows you to time out a read operation after a given time, which can be very convenient when you are expecting user input that takes too long. The technique is illustrated in timeOut.sh.

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      #!/bin/bash
      
      if [[ $# -le 0 ]]
      then
          printf "Not enough arguments!n"
          exit
      fi
      
      TIMEOUT=$1
      VARIABLE=0
      
      while :
      do
        ((VARIABLE = VARIABLE + 1))
        read -t $TIMEOUT -p "Do you want to Quit(Y/N): "
        if [ $VARIABLE -gt $TIMEOUT ]; then
          echo "Timing out - user response took too long!"
          break
        fi
      
        case $REPLY in
        [yY]*)
          echo "Quitting!"
          break
          ;;
        [nN]*)
          echo "Do not quit!"
          ;;
        *) echo "Please choose Y or N!"
           ;;
        esac
      done
      • The timeout of the read operation is given as a command line argument to the script, an integer representing the number of seconds that will pass before the script will “time out” and exit.
      • The case block is what handles the available options.
      • Notice that what you are going to do in each case is up to you – the presented code uses simple commands to illustrate the technique.

      Run the timeOut script:

      ./timeOut.sh 10
      

      The output of timeOut.sh will resemble the following:

        
      Do you want to Quit(Y/N): Please choose Y or N!
      Do you want to Quit(Y/N): Y
      Quitting!
      
      

      Alternatively, you can wait the full ten seconds for your script to time out:

        
      Do you want to Quit(Y/N):
      Timing out - user response took too long!
      
      

      Converting tabs to spaces

      The presented utility, which is named t2s.sh, will read a text file and convert each tab to the specified number of space characters. Notice that the presented script replaces each tab character with 4 spaces but you can change that value in the code or even get it as command line argument.

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      #!/bin/bash
      
      for f in "[email protected]"
      do
          if [ ! -f $f ]
          then
            echo $f does not exist!
            continue
          fi
          echo "Converting $f.";
          newFile=$(expand -t 4 "$f");
          echo "$newFile" > "$f";
      done
      • The script uses the expand(1) utility that does the job of converting tabs to spaces for us.
      • expand(1) writes its results to standard output – the script saves that output and replaces the current file with the new output, which means that the original file will change.
      • Although tabs2spaces.sh does not use any fancy techniques or code, it does the job pretty well.

      Run the tabs2spaces script:

      ./tabs2spaces.sh textfile.txt
      

      The output of tabs2spaces.sh will resemble the following:

        
      Converting textfile.txt.
      
      

      Note

      The file textfile.txt will not exist by default. You can use a pre-existing text file to test this script, or you can create the textfile.txt file using a text editor of your choice.

      Counting files

      The following script will look into a predefined list of directories and count the number of files that exist in each directory and its subdirectories. If that number is above a threshold, then the script will generate a warning message.

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      #!/bin/bash
      
      DIRECTORIES="/bin:/home/mtsouk/code:/srv/www/www.mtsoukalos.eu/logs:/notThere"
      
      # Count the number of arguments passed in
      if [[ $# -le 0 ]]
      then
          echo "Using default value for COUNT!"
      else
          if [[ $1 =~ ^-?[0-9]+([0-9]+)?$ ]]
          then
              COUNT=$1
          fi
      fi
      
      while read -d ':' dir; do
          if [ ! -d "$dir" ]
          then
              echo "**" Skipping $dir
              continue
          fi
          files=`find $dir -type f | wc -l`
          if [ $files -lt $COUNT ]
          then
              echo "Everything is fine in $dir: $files"
          else
              echo "WARNING: Large number of files in $dir: $files!"
          fi
      done <<< "$DIRECTORIES:"

      The counting of the files is done with the find $dir -type f | wc -l command. You can read more about the find command in our guide.

      Run the countFiles script:

      ./countFiles.sh 100
      

      The output of countFiles.sh will resemble the following:

        
      WARNING: Large number of files in /bin: 118!
      Everything is fine in /home/mtsouk/code: 81
      WARNING: Large number of files in /srv/www/www.mtsoukalos.eu/logs: 106!
      ** Skipping /notThere
      
      

      Summary

      The bash scripting language is a powerful programming language that can save you time and energy when applied effectively. If you have a lot of useful bash scripts, then you can automate things by creating cron jobs that execute your bash scripts. It is up to the developer to decide whether they prefer to use bash or a different scripting language such as perl, ruby, or python.

      More Information

      You may wish to consult the following resources for additional information on this topic. While these are provided in the hope that they will be useful, please note that we cannot vouch for the accuracy or timeliness of externally hosted materials.

      Find answers, ask questions, and help others.

      This guide is published under a CC BY-ND 4.0 license.



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