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      How To Install and Configure an Apache ZooKeeper Cluster on Ubuntu 18.04

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      Apache ZooKeeper is open-source software that enables resilient and highly reliable distributed coordination. It is commonly used in distributed systems to manage configuration information, naming services, distributed synchronization, quorum, and state. In addition, distributed systems rely on ZooKeeper to implement consensus, leader election, and group management.

      In this guide, you will install and configure Apache ZooKeeper 3.4.13 on Ubuntu 18.04. To achieve resilience and high availability, ZooKeeper is intended to be replicated over a set of hosts, called an ensemble. First, you will create a standalone installation of a single-node ZooKeeper server and then add in details for setting up a multi-node cluster. The standalone installation is useful in development and testing environments, but a cluster is the most practical solution for production environments.


      Before you begin this installation and configuration guide, you’ll need the following:

      • The standalone installation needs one Ubuntu 18.04 server with a minimum of 4GB of RAM set up by following the Ubuntu 18.04 initial server setup guide, including a non-root user with sudo privileges and a firewall. You need two additional servers, set up by following the same steps, for the multi-node cluster.
      • OpenJDK 8 installed on your server, as ZooKeeper requires Java to run. To do this, follow the “Install Specific Versions of OpenJDK” step from the How To Install Java with `apt` on Ubuntu 18.04 guide.

      Because ZooKeeper keeps data in memory to achieve high throughput and low latency, production systems work best with 8GB of RAM. Lower amounts of RAM may lead to JVM swapping, which could cause ZooKeeper server latency. High ZooKeeper server latency could result in issues like client session timeouts that would have an adverse impact on system functionality.

      Step 1 — Creating a User for ZooKeeper

      A dedicated user should run services that handle requests over a network and consume resources. This practice creates segregation and control that will improve your environment’s security and manageability. In this step, you’ll create a non-root sudo user, named zk in this tutorial, to run the ZooKeeper service.

      First, log in as the non-root sudo user that you created in the prerequisites.

      ssh sammy@your_server_ip

      Create the user that will run the ZooKeeper service:

      Passing the -m flag to the useradd command will create a home directory for this user. The home directory for zk will be /home/zk by default.

      Set bash as the default shell for the zk user:

      • sudo usermod --shell /bin/bash zk

      Set a password for this user:

      Next, you will add the zk user to the sudo group so it can run commands in a privileged mode:

      In terms of security, it is recommended that you allow SSH access to as few users as possible. Logging in remotely as sammy and then using su to switch to the desired user creates a level of separation between credentials for accessing the system and running processes. You will disable SSH access for both your zk and root user in this step.

      Open your sshd_config file:

      • sudo nano /etc/ssh/sshd_config

      Locate the PermitRootLogin line and set the value to no to disable SSH access for the root user:


      PermitRootLogin no

      Under the PermitRootLogin value, add a DenyUsers line and set the value as any user who should have SSH access disabled:


      DenyUsers zk

      Save and exit the file and then restart the SSH daemon to activate the changes.

      • sudo systemctl restart sshd

      Switch to the zk user:

      The -l flag invokes a login shell after switching users. A login shell resets environment variables and provides a clean start for the user.

      Enter the password at the prompt to authenticate the user.

      Now that you have created, configured, and logged in as the zk user, you will create a directory to store your ZooKeeper data.

      Step 2 — Creating a Data Directory for ZooKeeper

      ZooKeeper persists all configuration and state data to disk so it can survive a reboot. In this step, you will create a data directory that ZooKeeper will use to read and write data. You can create the data directory on the local filesystem or on a remote storage drive. This tutorial will focus on creating the data directory on your local filesystem.

      Create a directory for ZooKeeper to use:

      • sudo mkdir -p /data/zookeeper

      Grant your zk user ownership to the directory:

      • sudo chown zk:zk /data/zookeeper

      chown changes the ownership and group of the /data/zookeeper directory so that the user zk, who belongs to the group zk, owns the data directory.

      You have successfully created and configured the data directory. When you move on to configure ZooKeeper, you will specify this path as the data directory that ZooKeeper will use to store its files.

      Step 3 — Downloading and Extracting the ZooKeeper Binaries

      In this step, you will manually download and extract the ZooKeeper binaries to the /opt directory. You can use the Advanced Packaging Tool, apt, to download ZooKeeper, but it may install an older version with different features. Installing ZooKeeper manually will give you full control to choose which version you would like to use.

      Since you are downloading these files manually, start by changing to the /opt directory:

      From your local machine, navigate to the Apache download page. This page will automatically provide you with the mirror closest to you for the fastest download. Click the link to the suggested mirror site, then scroll down and click zookeeper/ to view the available releases. Select the version of ZooKeeper that you would like to install. This tutorial will focus on using 3.4.13. Once you select the version, right click the binary file ending with .tar.gz and copy the link address.

      From your server, use the wget command along with the copied link to download the ZooKeeper binaries:

      • sudo wget

      Extract the binaries from the compressed archive:

      • sudo tar -xvf zookeeper-3.4.13.tar.gz

      The .tar.gz extension represents a combination of TAR packaging followed by a GNU zip (gzip) compression. You will notice that you passed the flag -xvf to the command to extract the archive. The flag x stands for extract, v enables verbose mode to show the extraction progress, and f allows specifying the input, in our case zookeeper-3.4.13.tar.gz, as opposed to STDIN.

      Next, give the zk user ownership of the extracted binaries so that it can run the executables. You can change ownership like so:

      • sudo chown zk:zk -R zookeeper-3.4.13

      Next, you will configure a symbolic link to ensure that your ZooKeeper directory will remain relevant across updates. You can also use symbolic links to shorten directory names, which can lessen the time it takes to set up your configuration files.

      Create a symbolic link using the ln command.

      • sudo ln -s zookeeper-3.4.13 zookeeper

      Change the ownership of that link to zk:zk. Notice that you have passed a -h flag to change the ownership of the link itself. Not specifying -h changes the ownership of the target of the link, which you explicitly did in the previous step.

      • sudo chown -h zk:zk zookeeper

      With the symbolic links created, your directory paths in the configurations will remain relevant and unchanged through future upgrades. You can now configure ZooKeeper.

      Step 4 — Configuring ZooKeeper

      Now that you've set up your environment, you are ready to configure ZooKeeper.

      The configuration file will live in the /opt/zookeeper/conf directory. This directory contains a sample configuration file that comes with the ZooKeeper distribution. This sample file, named zoo_sample.cfg, contains the most common configuration parameter definitions and sample values for these parameters. Some of the common parameters are as follows:

      • tickTime: Sets the length of a tick in milliseconds. A tick is a time unit used by ZooKeeper to measure the length between heartbeats. Minimum session timeouts are twice the tickTime.
      • dataDir: Specifies the directory used to store snapshots of the in-memory database and the transaction log for updates. You could choose to specify a separate directory for transaction logs.
      • clientPort: The port used to listen for client connections.
      • maxClientCnxns: Limits the maximum number of client connections.

      Create a configuration file named zoo.cfg at /opt/zookeeper/conf. You can create and open a file using nano or your favorite editor:

      • nano /opt/zookeeper/conf/zoo.cfg

      Add the following set of properties and values to that file:



      A tickTime of 2000 milliseconds is the suggested interval between heartbeats. A shorter interval could lead to system overhead with limited benefits. The dataDir parameter points to the path defined by the symbolic link you created in the previous section. Conventionally, ZooKeeper uses port 2181 to listen for client connections. In most situations, 60 allowed client connections are plenty for development and testing.

      Save the file and exit the editor.

      You have configured ZooKeeper and are ready to start the server.

      Step 5 — Starting ZooKeeper and Testing the Standalone Installation

      You've configured all the components needed to run ZooKeeper. In this step, you will start the ZooKeeper service and test your configuration by connecting to the service locally.

      Navigate back to the /opt/zookeeper directory.

      Start ZooKeeper with the command.

      You will see the following on your standard output:


      ZooKeeper JMX enabled by default Using config: /opt/zookeeper/bin/../conf/zoo.cfg Starting zookeeper ... STARTED

      Connect to the local ZooKeeper server with the following command:

      • bin/ -server

      You will get a prompt with the label CONNECTED. This confirms that you have a successful local, standalone ZooKeeper installation. If you encounter errors, you will want to verify that the configuration is correct.


      Connecting to ... ... [zk: 0]

      Type help on this prompt to get a list of commands that you can execute from the client. The output will be as follows:


      [zk: 0] help ZooKeeper -server host:port cmd args stat path [watch] set path data [version] ls path [watch] delquota [-n|-b] path ls2 path [watch] setAcl path acl setquota -n|-b val path history redo cmdno printwatches on|off delete path [version] sync path listquota path rmr path get path [watch] create [-s] [-e] path data acl addauth scheme auth quit getAcl path close connect host:port

      After you've done some testing, you will close the client session by typing quit on the prompt. The ZooKeeper service will continue running after you closed the client session. Shut down the ZooKeeper service, as you'll configure it as a systemd service in the next step:

      You have now installed, configured, and tested a standalone ZooKeeper service. This setup is useful to familiarize yourself with ZooKeeper, but is also helpful for developmental and testing environments. Now that you know the configuration works, you will configure systemd to simplify the management of your ZooKeeper service.

      Step 6 — Creating and Using a Systemd Unit File

      The systemd, system and service manager, is an init system used to bootstrap the user space and to manage system processes after boot. You can create a daemon for starting and checking the status of ZooKeeper using systemd.

      Systemd Essentials is a great introductory resource for learning more about systemd and its constituent components.

      Use your editor to create a .service file named zk.service at /etc/systemd/system/.

      • sudo nano /etc/systemd/system/zk.service

      Add the following lines to the file to define the ZooKeeper Service:


      Description=Zookeeper Daemon
      ExecStart=/opt/zookeeper/bin/ start /opt/zookeeper/conf/zoo.cfg
      ExecStop=/opt/zookeeper/bin/ stop /opt/zookeeper/conf/zoo.cfg
      ExecReload=/opt/zookeeper/bin/ restart /opt/zookeeper/conf/zoo.cfg

      The Service section in the unit file configuration specifies the working directory, the user under which the service would run, and the executable commands to start, stop, and restart the ZooKeeper service. For additional information on all the unit file configuration options, you can read the Understanding Systemd Units and Unit Files article.

      Save the file and exit the editor.

      Now that your systemd configuration is in place, you can start the service:

      Once you've confirmed that your systemd file can successfully start the service, you will enable the service to start on boot.

      This output confirms the creation of the symbolic link:


      Created symlink /etc/systemd/system/ → /etc/systemd/system/zk.service.

      Check the status of the ZooKeeper service using:

      Stop the ZooKeeper service using systemctl.

      Finally, to restart the daemon, use the following command:

      • sudo systemctl restart zk

      The systemd mechanism is becoming the init system of choice on many Linux distributions. Now that you've configured systemd to manage ZooKeeper, you can leverage this fast and flexible init model to start, stop, and restart the ZooKeeper service.

      Step 7 — Configuring a Multi-Node ZooKeeper Cluster

      While the standalone ZooKeeper server is useful for development and testing, every production environment should have a replicated multi-node cluster.

      Nodes in the ZooKeeper cluster that work together as an application form a quorum. Quorum refers to the minimum number of nodes that need to agree on a transaction before it's committed. A quorum needs an odd number of nodes so that it can establish a majority. An even number of nodes may result in a tie, which would mean the nodes would not reach a majority or consensus.

      In a production environment, you should run each ZooKeeper node on a separate host. This prevents service disruption due to host hardware failure or reboots. This is an important and necessary architectural consideration for building a resilient and highly available distributed system.

      In this tutorial, you will install and configure three nodes in the quorum to demonstrate a multi-node setup. Before you configure a three-node cluster, you will spin up two additional servers with the same configuration as your standalone ZooKeeper installation. Ensure that the two additional nodes meet the prerequisites, and then follow steps one through six to set up a running ZooKeeper instance.

      Once you've followed steps one through six for the new nodes, open zoo.cfg in the editor on each node.

      • sudo nano /opt/zookeeper/conf/zoo.cfg

      All nodes in a quorum will need the same configuration file. In your zoo.cfg file on each of the three nodes, add the additional configuration parameters and values for initLimit, syncLimit, and the servers in the quorum, at the end of the file.



      initLimit specifies the time that the initial synchronization phase can take. This is the time within which each of the nodes in the quorum needs to connect to the leader. syncLimit specifies the time that can pass between sending a request and receiving an acknowledgment. This is the maximum time nodes can be out of sync from the leader. ZooKeeper nodes use a pair of ports, :2888 and :3888, for follower nodes to connect to the leader node and for leader election, respectively.

      Once you've updated the file on each node, you will save and exit the editor.

      To complete your multi-node configuration, you will specify a node ID on each of the servers. To do this, you will create a myid file on each node. Each file will contain a number that correlates to the server number assigned in the configuration file.

      On your_zookeeper_node_1, create the myid file that will specify the node ID:

      • sudo nano /data/zookeeper/myid

      Since your_zookeeper_node_1 is identified as server.1, you will enter 1 to define the node ID. After adding the value, your file will look like this:

      your_zookeeper_node_1 /data/zookeeper/myid


      Follow the same steps for the remaining nodes. The myid file on each node should be as follows:

      your_zookeeper_node_1 /data/zookeeper/myid


      your_zookeeper_node_2 /data/zookeeper/myid


      your_zookeeper_node_3 /data/zookeeper/myid


      You have now configured a three-node ZooKeeper cluster. Next, you will run the cluster and test your installation.

      Step 8 — Running and Testing the Multi-Node Installation

      With each node configured to work as a cluster, you are ready to start a quorum. In this step, you will start the quorum on each node and then test your cluster by creating sample data in ZooKeeper.

      To start a quorum node, first change to the /opt/zookeeper directory on each node:

      Start each node with the following command:

      • java -cp zookeeper-3.4.13.jar:lib/log4j-1.2.17.jar:lib/slf4j-log4j12-1.7.25.jar:lib/slf4j-api-1.7.25.jar:conf org.apache.zookeeper.server.quorum.QuorumPeerMain conf/zoo.cfg

      As nodes start up, you will intermittently see some connection errors followed by a stage where they join the quorum and elect a leader among themselves. After a few seconds of initialization, you can start testing your installation.

      Log in via SSH to your_zookeeper_node_3 as the non-root user you configured in the prerequisites:

      • ssh sammy@your_zookeeper_node_3

      Once logged in, switch to your zk user:

      your_zookeeper_node_3 /data/zookeeper/myid

      Enter the password for the zk user. Once logged in, change the directory to /opt/zookeeper:

      your_zookeeper_node_3 /data/zookeeper/myid

      You will now start a ZooKeeper command line client and connect to ZooKeeper on your_zookeeper_node_1:

      your_zookeeper_node_3 /data/zookeeper/myid

      • bin/ -server your_zookeeper_node_1:2181

      In the standalone installation, both the client and server were running on the same host. This allowed you to establish a client connection with the ZooKeeper server using localhost. Since the client and server are running on different nodes in your multi-node cluster, in the previous step you needed to specify the IP address of your_zookeeper_node_1 to connect to it.

      You will see the familiar prompt with the CONNECTED label, similar to what you saw in Step 5.

      Next, you will create, list, and then delete a znode. The znodes are the fundamental abstractions in ZooKeeper that are analogous to files and directories on a file system. ZooKeeper maintains its data in a hierarchical namespace, and znodes are the data registers of this namespace.

      Testing that you can successfully create, list, and then delete a znode is essential to establishing that your ZooKeeper cluster is installed and configured correctly.

      Create a znode named zk_znode_1 and associate the string sample_data with it.

      • create /zk_znode_1 sample_data

      You will see the following output once created:


      Created /zk_znode_1

      List the newly created znode:

      Get the data associated with it:

      ZooKeeper will respond like so:


      [zk: your_zookeeper_node_1:2181(CONNECTED)] ls / [zk_znode_1, zookeeper] [zk: your_zookeeper_node_1:2181(CONNECTED)] get /zk_znode_1 sample_data cZxid = 0x100000002 ctime = Tue Nov 06 19:47:41 UTC 2018 mZxid = 0x100000002 mtime = Tue Nov 06 19:47:41 UTC 2018 pZxid = 0x100000002 cversion = 0 dataVersion = 0 aclVersion = 0 ephemeralOwner = 0x0 dataLength = 11 numChildren = 0

      The output confirms the value, sample_data, that you associated with zk_node_1. ZooKeeper also provides additional information about creation time, ctime, and modification time, mtime. ZooKeeper is a versioned data store, so it also presents you with metadata about the data version.

      Delete the zk_znode_1 znode:

      In this step, you successfully tested connectivity between two of your ZooKeeper nodes. You also learned basic znode management by creating, listing, and deleting znodes. Your multi-node configuration is complete, and you are ready to start using ZooKeeper.


      In this tutorial, you configured and tested both a standalone and multi-node ZooKeeper environment. Now that your multi-node ZooKeeper deployment is ready to use, you can review the official ZooKeeper documentation for additional information and projects.

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