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      How To Use Telepresence on Kubernetes for Rapid Development on MacOS


      The author selected the Tech Education Fund to receive a donation as part of the Write for DOnations program.

      Introduction

      Application developers building microservices on Kubernetes often encounter two major problems that slow them down:

      • Slow feedback loops. Once a code change is made, it must be deployed to Kubernetes to be tested. This requires a container build, push to a container registry, and deployment to Kubernetes. This adds minutes to every code iteration.
      • Insufficient memory and CPU locally. Developers attempt to speed up the feedback loop by running Kubernetes locally with minikube or the equivalent. However, resource-hungry applications quickly exceed the compute and memory available locally.

      Telepresence is a Cloud-Native Computing Foundation project for fast, efficient development on Kubernetes. With Telepresence, you run your service locally, while you run the rest of your application in the cloud. Telepresence creates a bi-directional network connection between your Kubernetes cluster and your local workstation. This way, the service you’re running locally can communicate with services in the cluster, and vice versa. That allows you to use the compute and memory resources of the cluster, but without having to go through a complete deployment cycle for each change.

      In this tutorial, you’ll configure Telepresence on your local machine running MacOS to work with a Kubernetes cluster. You’ll intercept traffic to your cluster and redirect it to your local environment.

      To complete this tutorial, you will need:

      Step 1 — Installing Telepresence

      In this step, you’ll install Telepresence and connect it to your Kubernetes cluster. First, make sure that you have kubectl configured and that you can connect to your Kubernetes cluster from your local workstation. Use the get services command to check your cluster’s status:

      The output will look like this, with your own cluster’s IP address listed:

      Output

      NAME TYPE CLUSTER-IP EXTERNAL-IP PORT(S) AGE kubernetes ClusterIP 10.245.0.1 <none> 443/TCP 116m

      Next you’ll install Telepresence locally. Telepresence comes as a single binary.

      Use curl to download the latest binary for MacOS (around 60 MB):

      • sudo curl -fL https://app.getambassador.io/download/tel2/darwin/amd64/latest/telepresence -o /usr/local/bin/telepresence

      Then use chmod to make the binary executable:

      • sudo chmod a+x /usr/local/bin/telepresence

      Now that you have Telepresence installed locally, you can verify that it worked by connecting to your Kubernetes cluster:

      You’ll see the following output:

      Output

      Launching Telepresence Daemon v2.2.0 (api v3) Connecting to traffic manager... Connected to context default (https://<cluster public URL)

      If Telepresence doesn’t connect, check your kubectl configuration.

      Verify that Telepresence is working properly by connecting to the Kubernetes API server with the status command:

      You will see the following output. Telepresence Proxy: ON indicates that Telepresence has configured a proxy to access services on the cluster.

      Output

      Root Daemon: Running Version : v2.2.0 (api 3) Primary DNS : "" Fallback DNS: "" User Daemon: Running Version : v2.2.0 (api 3) Ambassador Cloud : Logged out Status : Connected Kubernetes server : https://e5488ea3-6455-4fc7-be25-09d1d90bde82.k8s.ondigitalocean.com Kubernetes context: your_kubernetes_context Telepresence proxy: ON (networking to the cluster is enabled) Intercepts : 0 total

      When you use telepresence connect, on the server side, Telepresence creates a namespace called ambassador and runs a traffic manager. On the client side, Telepresence sets up DNS to enable local access to remote servers. That means you do not have to use kubectl port-forward to manually configure access to local services. When you access a remote service the DNS resolves to a specific IP address. For more details, see the Telepresence architecture documentation.

      You can now connect to the remote Kubernetes cluster from your local workstation, as if the Kubernetes cluster were running on your laptop. Next you’ll try out a sample application.

      Step 2 — Adding a Sample Node.js Application

      In this step, you’ll use a simple Node.js application to simulate a complex service running on your Kubernetes cluster. Instead of creating the file locally, you’ll access it from DockerHub and deploy it to your cluster from there. The file is called hello-node, and returns a text string:

      var http = require('http');
      
      var handleRequest = function(request, response) {
        console.log('Received request for URL: ' + request.url);
        response.writeHead(200, {'Content-Type': 'text/plain'});
        response.write('Hello, Node!');
        response.end();
      };
      
      http.createServer(handleRequest).listen(9001);
      console.log('Use curl <hostname>:9001 to access this server...');
      

      Use the kubectl create deployment command to create a deployment called hello node:

      • kubectl create deployment hello-node --image=docommunity/hello-node:1.0

      You will see the following output:

      Output

      deployment.apps/hello-node created

      Use the get pod command to confirm that the deployment has occurred and the app is now running on the cluster:

      The output will show a READY status of 1/1.

      Output

      NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE hello-node-86b49779bf-9zqvn 1/1 Running 0 11s

      Use the expose deployment command to make the application available on port 9001:

      • kubectl expose deployment hello-node --type=LoadBalancer --port=9001

      The output will look like this:

      Output

      service/hello-node exposed

      Use the kubectl get svc command to check that the load balancer is running:

      The output will look like this, with your own IP addresses:

      Output

      NAME TYPE CLUSTER-IP EXTERNAL-IP PORT(S) AGE hello-node LoadBalancer 10.245.75.48 <pending> 9001:30682/TCP 4s kubernetes ClusterIP 10.245.0.1 <none> 443/TCP 6d

      If you are using local Kubernetes without load balancer support, then the external IP value for LoadBalancer will show as <pending> permanently. That is fine for the purposes of this tutorial. If you are using DigitalOcean Kubernetes, you should see the external IP value will display the IP address after a delay.

      Next, verify that the application is running by using curl to access the load balancer:

      If you’re not running a load balancer, you can use curl to access the service directly:

      • curl <servicename>.<namespace>:9001

      The output will look like this:

      Output

      Hello, Node!

      Next, use the telepresence connect command to connect Telepresence to the cluster:

      This allows you to access all remote services as if they were local, so you can access the service by name:

      • curl hello-node.default:9001

      You’ll receive the same response as you did when you accessed the service via its IP:

      Output

      Hello, Node!

      The service is up and running on the cluster, and you can access it remotely. If you make any changes to the hello-node.js app, you’d need to take the following steps:

      • Modify the app.
      • Rebuild the container image.
      • Push it to a container registry.
      • Deploy to Kubernetes.

      That is a lot of steps. You could use tooling (automated pipelines, such as Skaffold) to reduce the manual work. But the steps themselves cannot be bypassed.

      Now you’ll build another version of our hello-node app, and use Telepresence to test it without having to build the container image or push it to registry or even deploy to Kubernetes.

      Step 3 — Running a New Version of the Service Locally

      In this step, you’ll modify the existing hello-node application on your local machine. You’ll then use Telepresence to route traffic to the local version with a Telepresence intercept. The intercept takes traffic intended for your cluster and reroutes it to your local version of the service, so you can continue working in your development environment.

      Create a new file containing a modified version of the sample application:

      Add the following code to the new file:

      hello-node-v2.js

      var http = require('http');
      
      var handleRequest = function(request, response) {
        console.log('Received request for URL: ' + request.url);
        response.writeHead(200, {'Content-Type': 'text/plain'});
        response.write('Hello, Node V2!');
        response.end();
      };
      
      http.createServer(handleRequest).listen(9001);
      

      Save and exit the file.

      Start the service with Node:

      Leave the service running, then open a new terminal window and access the service:

      The output will look like this:

      Output

      Hello, Node V2!

      This service is only running locally, however. If you try to access the remote server, it is currently running version 1 of hello-node. To fix that, you’ll enable an intercept to route all traffic going to the hello-node service in the cluster to the local version of the service.

      Use the intercept command to set up the intercept:

      • telepresence intercept hello-node --port 9001

      The output will look like this:

      Output

      Using deployment hello-node intercepted Intercept name : hello-node State : ACTIVE Destination : 127.0.0.1:9001 Volume Mount Error: sshfs is not installed on your local machine Intercepting : all TCP connections

      Check that the intercept has been set up correctly with the status command:

      The output will look like this:

      Output

      Root Daemon: Running Version : v2.2.0 (api 3) Primary DNS : "" Fallback DNS: "" User Daemon: Running Version : v2.2.0 (api 3) Ambassador Cloud : Logged out Status : Connected Kubernetes server : https://e5488ea3-6455-4fc7-be25-09d1d90bde82.k8s.ondigitalocean.com Kubernetes context: <your_kubernetes_context> Telepresence proxy: ON (networking to the cluster is enabled) Intercepts : 1 total hello-node: user@context

      Now access the remote service with curl as you did previously:

      The output will look like this:

      Output

      Hello, Node V2!

      Now, any messages sent to the service on the cluster are redirected to the local service. This is useful in the development stage, because you can avoid the deployment loop (build, push, deploy) for every individual change to your code.

      Conclusion

      In this tutorial, you’ve installed Telepresence on your local machine, and demonstrated how to make code changes in your local environment without having to deploy to Kubernetes every time you make a change. For more tutorials and information about Telepresence, see the Telepresence documentation.



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