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      How to Install WordPress with LAMP on Debian 10


      Introduction

      WordPress is the most popular CMS (content management system) on the internet. It allows you to easily set up flexible blogs and websites on top of a MariaDB backend with PHP processing. WordPress has seen incredible adoption and is a great choice for getting a website up and running quickly. After setup, almost all administration can be done through the web frontend.

      In this guide, we’ll focus on getting a WordPress instance set up on a LAMP stack (Linux, Apache, MariaDB, and PHP) on a Debian 10 server.

      Prerequisites

      In order to complete this tutorial, you will need access to a Debian 10 server.

      You will need to perform the following tasks before you can start this guide:

      • Create a sudo user on your server: We will be completing the steps in this guide using a non-root user with sudo privileges. You can create a user with sudo privileges by following our Debian 10 initial server setup guide.
      • Install a LAMP stack: WordPress will need a web server, a database, and PHP in order to correctly function. Setting up a LAMP stack (Linux, Apache, MariaDB, and PHP) fulfills all of these requirements. Follow this guide to install and configure this software.
      • Secure your site with SSL: WordPress serves dynamic content and handles user authentication and authorization. TLS/SSL is the technology that allows you to encrypt the traffic from your site so that your connection is secure. The way you set up SSL will depend on whether you have a domain name for your site.
        • If you have a domain name… the easiest way to secure your site is with Let’s Encrypt, which provides free, trusted certificates. Follow our Let’s Encrypt guide for Apache to set this up.
        • If you do not have a domain… and you are just using this configuration for testing or personal use, you can use a self-signed certificate instead. This provides the same type of encryption, but without the domain validation. Follow our self-signed SSL guide for Apache to get set up.

      When you are finished with the setup steps, log in to your server as your sudo user and continue below.

      Step 1 — Creating a MariaDB Database and User for WordPress

      The first step that we will take is a preparatory one. WordPress requires a MySQL-based database to store and manage site and user information. We have MariaDB — a drop-in replacement for MySQL — installed already, but we need to make a database and a user for WordPress to use.

      To get started, open up the MariaDB prompt as the root account:

      Note: If you set up another account with administrative privileges when you installed and set up MariaDB, you can also log in as that user. You’ll need to do so with the following command:

      After issuing this command, MariaDB will prompt you for the password you set for that account.

      Begin by creating a new database that WordPress will control. You can call this whatever you would like but, to keep it simple for this guide, we will name it wordpress.

      Create the database for WordPress by typing:

      • CREATE DATABASE wordpress DEFAULT CHARACTER SET utf8 COLLATE utf8_unicode_ci;

      Note that every MySQL statement must end in a semi-colon (;). Check to make sure this is present if you are running into any issues.

      Next, create a separate MySQL user account that we will use exclusively to operate on our new database. Creating single-function databases and accounts is a good idea from a management and security standpoint. We will use the name wordpress_user in this guide, but feel free to change this if you'd like.

      Create this account, set a password, and grant the user access to the database you just created with the following command. Remember to choose a strong password for your database user:

      • GRANT ALL ON wordpress.* TO 'wordpress_user'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'password';

      You now have a database and user account, each made specifically for WordPress. Run the following command to reload the grant tables so that the current instance of MariaDB knows about the changes you've made:

      Exit out of MariaDB by typing:

      Now that you’ve configured the database and user that will be used by WordPress, you can move on to installing some PHP-related packages used by the CMS.

      Step 2 — Installing Additional PHP Extensions

      When setting up our LAMP stack, we only required a very minimal set of extensions in order to get PHP to communicate with MariaDB. WordPress and many of its plugins leverage additional PHP extensions.

      Download and install some of the most popular PHP extensions for use with WordPress by typing:

      • sudo apt update
      • sudo apt install php-curl php-gd php-mbstring php-xml php-xmlrpc php-soap php-intl php-zip

      Note: Each WordPress plugin has its own set of requirements. Some may require additional PHP packages to be installed. Check your plugin documentation to find its PHP requirements. If they are available, they can be installed with apt as demonstrated above.

      We will restart Apache to load these new extensions in the next section. If you are returning here to install additional plugins, you can restart Apache now by typing:

      • sudo systemctl restart apache2

      At this point, all that’s left to do before installing WordPress is to make some changes to your Apache configuration in order to allow the CMS to function smoothly.

      Step 3 — Adjusting Apache's Configuration to Allow for .htaccess Overrides and Rewrites

      With the additional PHP extensions installed and ready for use, the next thing to do is to make a few changes to your Apache configuration. Based on the prerequisite tutorials, you should have a configuration file for your site in the /etc/apache2/sites-available/ directory. We'll use /etc/apache2/sites-available/wordpress.conf as an example here, but you should substitute the path to your configuration file where appropriate.

      Additionally, we will use /var/www/wordpress as the root directory of our WordPress install. You should use the web root specified in your own configuration.

      Note: It's possible you are using the 000-default.conf default configuration (with /var/www/html as your web root). This is fine to use if you're only going to host one website on this server. If not, it's best to split the necessary configuration into logical chunks, one file per site.

      Currently, the use of .htaccess files is disabled. WordPress and many WordPress plugins use these files extensively for in-directory tweaks to the web server's behavior.

      Open the Apache configuration file for your website. Note that if you have an existing Apache configuration file for your website, this file’s name will be different:

      • sudo nano /etc/apache2/sites-available/wordpress.conf

      To allow .htaccess files, you’ll need to add a Directory block pointing to your document root with an AllowOverride directive within it. Add the following block of text inside the VirtualHost block in your configuration file, being sure to use the correct web root directory:

      /etc/apache2/sites-available/wordpress.conf

      <Directory /var/www/wordpress/>
          AllowOverride All
      </Directory>
      

      When you are finished, save and close the file.

      Next, enable the rewrite module in order to utilize the WordPress permalink feature:

      Before implementing the changes you've made, check to make sure that you haven't made any syntax errors:

      • sudo apache2ctl configtest

      If your configuration file’s syntax is correct, you’ll see the following in your output:

      Output

      Syntax OK

      If this command reports any errors, go back and check that you haven’t made any syntax errors in your configuration file. Otherwise, restart Apache to implement the changes:

      • sudo systemctl restart apache2

      Next, we will download and set up WordPress itself.

      Step 4 — Downloading WordPress

      Now that your server software is configured, you can download and set up WordPress. For security reasons in particular, it is always recommended to get the latest version of WordPress directly from their site.

      Note: We will use curl to download WordPress, but this program may not be installed by default on your Debian server. To install it, run:

      Change into a writable directory and then download the compressed release by typing:

      • cd /tmp
      • curl -O https://wordpress.org/latest.tar.gz

      Extract the compressed file to create the WordPress directory structure:

      We will move these files into our document root momentarily. Before we do, though, add a dummy .htaccess file so that this will be available for WordPress to use later.

      Create the file by typing:

      • touch /tmp/wordpress/.htaccess

      Then copy over the sample configuration file to the filename that WordPress actually reads:

      • cp /tmp/wordpress/wp-config-sample.php /tmp/wordpress/wp-config.php

      Additionally, create the upgrade directory so that WordPress won't run into permissions issues when trying to do this on its own following an update to its software:

      • mkdir /tmp/wordpress/wp-content/upgrade

      Then, copy the entire contents of the directory into your document root. Notice that the following command includes a dot at the end of the source directory to indicate that everything within the directory should be copied, including hidden files (like the .htaccess file you created):

      • sudo cp -a /tmp/wordpress/. /var/www/wordpress

      With that, you’ve successfully installed WordPress onto your web server and performed some of the initial configuration steps. Next, we’ll discuss some further configuration changes that will give WordPress the privileges it needs to function as well as access to the MariaDB database and user account you created previously.

      Step 5 — Configuring the WordPress Directory

      Before we can go through the web-based setup process for WordPress, we need to adjust some items in our WordPress directory.

      Start by giving ownership of all the files to the www-data user and group. This is the user that the Apache web server runs as, and Apache will need to be able to read and write WordPress files in order to serve the website and perform automatic updates.

      Update the ownership with chown:

      • sudo chown -R www-data:www-data /var/www/wordpress

      Next we will run two find commands to set the correct permissions on the WordPress directories and files:

      • sudo find /var/www/wordpress/ -type d -exec chmod 750 {} ;
      • sudo find /var/www/wordpress/ -type f -exec chmod 640 {} ;

      These should be a reasonable permissions set to start with, although some plugins and procedures might require additional tweaks.

      Following this, you will need to make some changes to the main WordPress configuration file.

      When you open the file, your first objective will be to adjust some secret keys to provide some security for your installation. WordPress provides a secure generator for these values so that you do not have to try to come up with good values on your own. These are only used internally, so it won't hurt usability to have complex, secure values here.

      To grab secure values from the WordPress secret key generator, type:

      • curl -s https://api.wordpress.org/secret-key/1.1/salt/

      You will get back unique values that look something like this:

      Warning! It is important that you request unique values each time. Do NOT copy the values shown below!

      Output

      define('AUTH_KEY', '1jl/vqfs<XhdXoAPz9 DO NOT COPY THESE VALUES c_j{iwqD^<+c9.k<J@4H'); define('SECURE_AUTH_KEY', 'E2N-h2]Dcvp+aS/p7X DO NOT COPY THESE VALUES {Ka(f;rv?Pxf})CgLi-3'); define('LOGGED_IN_KEY', 'W(50,{W^,OPB%PB<JF DO NOT COPY THESE VALUES 2;y&,2m%3]R6DUth[;88'); define('NONCE_KEY', 'll,4UC)7ua+8<!4VM+ DO NOT COPY THESE VALUES #`DXF+[$atzM7 o^-C7g'); define('AUTH_SALT', 'koMrurzOA+|L_lG}kf DO NOT COPY THESE VALUES 07VC*Lj*lD&?3w!BT#-'); define('SECURE_AUTH_SALT', 'p32*p,]z%LZ+pAu:VY DO NOT COPY THESE VALUES C-?y+K0DK_+F|0h{!_xY'); define('LOGGED_IN_SALT', 'i^/G2W7!-1H2OQ+t$3 DO NOT COPY THESE VALUES t6**bRVFSD[Hi])-qS`|'); define('NONCE_SALT', 'Q6]U:K?j4L%Z]}h^q7 DO NOT COPY THESE VALUES 1% ^qUswWgn+6&xqHN&%');

      These are configuration lines that you will paste directly into your configuration file to set secure keys. Copy the output you received to your clipboard, and then open the WordPress configuration file located in your document root:

      • sudo nano /var/www/wordpress/wp-config.php

      Find the section that contains the dummy values for those settings. It will look something like this:

      /var/www/wordpress/wp-config.php

      . . .
      
      define('AUTH_KEY',         'put your unique phrase here');
      define('SECURE_AUTH_KEY',  'put your unique phrase here');
      define('LOGGED_IN_KEY',    'put your unique phrase here');
      define('NONCE_KEY',        'put your unique phrase here');
      define('AUTH_SALT',        'put your unique phrase here');
      define('SECURE_AUTH_SALT', 'put your unique phrase here');
      define('LOGGED_IN_SALT',   'put your unique phrase here');
      define('NONCE_SALT',       'put your unique phrase here');
      
      . . .
      

      Delete these lines and paste in the values you copied from the command line:

      /var/www/wordpress/wp-config.php

      . . .
      
      define('AUTH_KEY',         'VALUES COPIED FROM THE COMMAND LINE');
      define('SECURE_AUTH_KEY',  'VALUES COPIED FROM THE COMMAND LINE');
      define('LOGGED_IN_KEY',    'VALUES COPIED FROM THE COMMAND LINE');
      define('NONCE_KEY',        'VALUES COPIED FROM THE COMMAND LINE');
      define('AUTH_SALT',        'VALUES COPIED FROM THE COMMAND LINE');
      define('SECURE_AUTH_SALT', 'VALUES COPIED FROM THE COMMAND LINE');
      define('LOGGED_IN_SALT',   'VALUES COPIED FROM THE COMMAND LINE');
      define('NONCE_SALT',       'VALUES COPIED FROM THE COMMAND LINE');
      
      . . .
      

      Next, modify the database connection settings at the top of the file. You need to adjust the database name, the database user, and the associated password that you’ve configured within MariaDB.

      The other change you must make is to set the method that WordPress should use to write to the filesystem. Since we've given the web server permission to write where it needs to, we can explicitly set the filesystem method to "direct". Failure to set this with our current settings would result in WordPress prompting for FTP credentials when you perform certain actions.

      This setting can be added below the database connection settings, or anywhere else in the file:

      /var/www/wordpress/wp-config.php

      . . .
      
      define('DB_NAME', 'wordpress');
      
      /** MySQL database username */
      define('DB_USER', 'wordpress_user');
      
      /** MySQL database password */
      define('DB_PASSWORD', 'password');
      
      . . .
      
      define('FS_METHOD', 'direct');
      

      Save and close the file when you are finished. Finally, you can finish installing and configuring WordPress by accessing it through your web browser.

      Step 6 — Completing the Installation Through the Web Interface

      Now that the server configuration is complete, we can complete the installation through the web interface.

      In your web browser, navigate to your server's domain name or public IP address:

      https://server_domain_or_IP
      

      Select the language you would like to use:

      WordPress language selection

      Next, you will come to the main setup page. Select a name for your WordPress site and choose a username (it is recommended not to choose something like "admin" for security purposes). A strong password is generated automatically. Save this password or select an alternative strong password.

      Enter your email address and select whether you want to discourage search engines from indexing your site:

      WordPress setup installation

      When ready, click the Install WordPress button. You’ll be taken to a page that prompts you to log in:

      WordPress login prompt

      Once you log in, you will be taken to the WordPress administration dashboard:

      WordPress login prompt

      From the dashboard, you can begin making changes to your site’s theme and publishing content.

      Conclusion

      WordPress should be installed and ready to use! Some common next steps are to choose the permalinks setting for your posts (can be found in Settings > Permalinks) or to select a new theme (in Appearance > Themes). If this is your first time using WordPress, explore the interface a bit to get acquainted with your new CMS, or check the First Steps with WordPress guide on their official documentation.



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      How To Install Linux, Apache, MariaDB, PHP (LAMP) stack on Debian 10


      Introduction

      A “LAMP” stack is a group of open-source software that is typically installed together to enable a server to host dynamic websites and web apps. This term is actually an acronym which represents the Linux operating system, with the Apache web server. The site data is stored in a MariaDB database, and dynamic content is processed by PHP.

      Although this software stack typically includes MySQL as the database management system, some Linux distributions — including Debian — use MariaDB as a drop-in replacement for MySQL.

      In this guide, we will install a LAMP stack on a Debian 10 server, using MariaDB as the database management system.

      Prerequisites

      In order to complete this tutorial, you will need to have a Debian 10 server with a non-root sudo-enabled user account and a basic firewall. This can be configured using our initial server setup guide for Debian 10.

      Step 1 — Installing Apache and Updating the Firewall

      The Apache web server is among the most popular web servers in the world. It’s well-documented and has been in wide use for much of the history of the web, which makes it a great default choice for hosting a website.

      Install Apache using Debian’s package manager, APT:

      • sudo apt update
      • sudo apt install apache2

      Since this is a sudo command, these operations are executed with root privileges. It will ask you for your regular user’s password to verify your intentions.

      Once you’ve entered your password, apt will tell you which packages it plans to install and how much extra disk space they’ll take up. Press Y and hit ENTER to continue, and the installation will proceed.

      Next, assuming that you have followed the initial server setup instructions by installing and enabling the UFW firewall, make sure that your firewall allows HTTP and HTTPS traffic.

      When installed on Debian 10, UFW comes loaded with app profiles which you can use to tweak your firewall settings. View the full list of application profiles by running:

      The WWW profiles are used to manage ports used by web servers:

      Output

      Available applications: . . . WWW WWW Cache WWW Full WWW Secure . . .

      If you inspect the WWW Full profile, it shows that it enables traffic to ports 80 and 443:

      • sudo ufw app info "WWW Full"

      Output

      Profile: WWW Full Title: Web Server (HTTP,HTTPS) Description: Web Server (HTTP,HTTPS) Ports: 80,443/tcp

      Allow incoming HTTP and HTTPS traffic for this profile:

      • sudo ufw allow in "WWW Full"

      You can do a spot check right away to verify that everything went as planned by visiting your server's public IP address in your web browser:

      http://your_server_ip
      

      You will see the default Debian 10 Apache web page, which is there for informational and testing purposes. It should look something like this:

      Debian 10 Apache default

      If you see this page, then your web server is now correctly installed and accessible through your firewall.

      If you do not know what your server's public IP address is, there are a number of ways you can find it. Usually, this is the address you use to connect to your server through SSH.

      There are a few different ways to do this from the command line. First, you could use the iproute2 tools to get your IP address by typing this:

      • ip addr show eth0 | grep inet | awk '{ print $2; }' | sed 's//.*$//'

      This will give you two or three lines back. They are all correct addresses, but your computer may only be able to use one of them, so feel free to try each one.

      An alternative method is to use the curl utility to contact an outside party to tell you how it sees your server. This is done by asking a specific server what your IP address is:

      • sudo apt install curl
      • curl http://icanhazip.com

      Regardless of the method you use to get your IP address, type it into your web browser's address bar to view the default Apache page.

      Step 2 — Installing MariaDB

      Now that you have a web server up and running, you need to install the database system to be able to store and manage data for your site.

      In Debian 10, the metapackage mysql-server, which was traditionally used to install the MySQL server, was replaced by default-mysql-server. This metapackage references MariaDB, a community fork of the original MySQL server by Oracle, and it's currently the default MySQL-compatible database server available on debian-based package manager repositories.

      For longer term compatibility, however, it’s recommended that instead of using the metapackage you install MariaDB using the program’s actual package, mariadb-server.

      To install this software, run:

      • sudo apt install mariadb-server

      When the installation is finished, it's recommended that you run a security script that comes pre-installed with MariaDB. This script will remove some insecure default settings and lock down access to your database system. Start the interactive script by running:

      • sudo mysql_secure_installation

      This script will take you through a series of prompts where you can make some changes to your MariaDB setup. The first prompt will ask you to enter the current database root password. This is not to be confused with the system root. The database root user is an administrative user with full privileges over the database system. Because you just installed MariaDB and haven’t made any configuration changes yet, this password will be blank, so just press ENTER at the prompt.

      The next prompt asks you whether you'd like to set up a database root password. Because MariaDB uses a special authentication method for the root user that is typically safer than using a password, you don't need to set this now. Type N and then press ENTER.

      From there, you can press Y and then ENTER to accept the defaults for all the subsequent questions. This will remove anonymous users and the test database, disable remote root login, and load these new rules so that MariaDB immediately respects the changes you have made.
      When you're finished, log in to the MariaDB console by typing:

      This will connect to the MariaDB server as the administrative database user root, which is inferred by the use of sudo when running this command. You should see output like this:

      Output

      Welcome to the MariaDB monitor. Commands end with ; or g. Your MariaDB connection id is 74 Server version: 10.3.15-MariaDB-1 Debian 10 Copyright (c) 2000, 2018, Oracle, MariaDB Corporation Ab and others. Type 'help;' or 'h' for help. Type 'c' to clear the current input statement. MariaDB [(none)]>

      Notice that you didn't need to provide a password to connect as the root user. That works because the default authentication method for the administrative MariaDB user is unix_socket instead of password. Even though this might look like a security concern at first, it makes the database server more secure because the only users allowed to log in as the root MariaDB user are the system users with sudo privileges connecting from the console or through an application running with the same privileges. In practical terms, that means you won't be able to use the administrative database root user to connect from your PHP application.

      For increased security, it's best to have dedicated user accounts with less expansive privileges set up for every database, especially if you plan on having multiple databases hosted on your server. To demonstrate such a setup, we'll create a database named example_database and a user named example_user, but you can replace these names with different values.
      To create a new database, run the following command from your MariaDB console:

      • CREATE DATABASE example_database;

      Now you can create a new user and grant them full privileges on the custom database you've just created. The following command defines this user's password as password, but you should replace this value with a secure password of your own choosing.

      • GRANT ALL ON example_database.* TO 'example_user'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'password' WITH GRANT OPTION;

      This will give the example_user user full privileges over the example_database database, while preventing this user from creating or modifying other databases on your server.

      Flush the privileges to ensure that they are saved and available in the current session:

      Following this, exit the MariaDB shell:

      You can test if the new user has the proper permissions by logging in to the MariaDB console again, this time using the custom user credentials:

      • mariadb -u example_user -p

      Note the -p flag in this command, which will prompt you for the password used when creating the example_user user. After logging in to the MariaDB console, confirm that you have access to the example_database database:

      This will give you the following output:

      Output

      +--------------------+ | Database | +--------------------+ | example_database | | information_schema | +--------------------+ 2 rows in set (0.000 sec)

      To exit the MariaDB shell, type:

      At this point, your database system is set up and you can move on to installing PHP, the final component of the LAMP stack.

      Step 3 — Installing PHP

      PHP is the component of your setup that will process code to display dynamic content. It can run scripts, connect to your MariaDB databases to get information, and hand the processed content over to your web server to display.

      Once again, leverage the apt system to install PHP. In addition, include some helper packages which will ensure that PHP code can run under the Apache server and talk to your MariaDB database:

      • sudo apt install php libapache2-mod-php php-mysql

      This should install PHP without any problems. We'll test this in a moment.

      In most cases, you will want to modify the way that Apache serves files. Currently, if a user requests a directory from the server, Apache will first look for a file called index.html. We want to tell the web server to prefer PHP files over others, so make Apache look for an index.php file first.

      To do this, type the following command to open the dir.conf file in a text editor with root privileges:

      • sudo nano /etc/apache2/mods-enabled/dir.conf

      It will look like this:

      /etc/apache2/mods-enabled/dir.conf

      <IfModule mod_dir.c>
          DirectoryIndex index.html index.cgi index.pl index.php index.xhtml index.htm
      </IfModule>
      

      Move the PHP index file (highlighted above) to the first position after the DirectoryIndex specification, like this:

      /etc/apache2/mods-enabled/dir.conf

      <IfModule mod_dir.c>
          DirectoryIndex index.php index.html index.cgi index.pl index.xhtml index.htm
      </IfModule>
      

      When you are finished, save and close the file. If you're using nano, you can do that by pressing CTRL+X, then Y and ENTER to confirm.

      Now reload Apache's configuration with:

      • sudo systemctl reload apache2

      You can check on the status of the apache2 service with systemctl status:

      • sudo systemctl status apache2

      Sample Output

      ● apache2.service - The Apache HTTP Server Loaded: loaded (/lib/systemd/system/apache2.service; enabled; vendor preset: enabled) Active: active (running) since Mon 2019-07-08 12:58:31 UTC; 8s ago Docs: https://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.4/ Process: 11948 ExecStart=/usr/sbin/apachectl start (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS) Main PID: 11954 (apache2) Tasks: 6 (limit: 4719) Memory: 11.5M CGroup: /system.slice/apache2.service ├─11954 /usr/sbin/apache2 -k start ├─11955 /usr/sbin/apache2 -k start ├─11956 /usr/sbin/apache2 -k start ├─11957 /usr/sbin/apache2 -k start ├─11958 /usr/sbin/apache2 -k start └─11959 /usr/sbin/apache2 -k start

      At this point, your LAMP stack is fully operational, but before you can test your setup with a PHP script it's best to set up a proper Apache Virtual Host to hold your website's files and folders. We'll do that in the next step.

      Step 4 — Creating a Virtual Host for your Website

      By default, Apache serves its content from a directory located at /var/www/html, using the configuration contained in /etc/apache2/sites-available/000-default.conf. Instead of modifying the default website configuration file, we are going to create a new virtual host for testing your PHP environment. Virtual hosts enable us to keep multiple websites hosted on a single Apache server.

      Following that, you'll create a directory structure within /var/www for an example website named your_domain.

      Create the root web directory for your_domain as follows:

      • sudo mkdir /var/www/your_domain

      Next, assign ownership of the directory with the $USER environment variable, which should reference your current system user:

      • sudo chown -R $USER:$USER /var/www/your_domain

      Then, open a new configuration file in Apache's sites-available directory using your preferred command-line editor. Here, we'll use nano:

      • sudo nano /etc/apache2/sites-available/your_domain.conf

      This will create a new blank file. Paste in the following bare-bones configuration:

      /etc/apache2/sites-available/your_domain

      <VirtualHost *:80>
          ServerName your_domain
          ServerAlias www.your_domain 
          ServerAdmin webmaster@localhost
          DocumentRoot /var/www/your_domain
          ErrorLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/error.log
          CustomLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/access.log combined
      </VirtualHost>
      

      With this VirtualHost configuration, we're telling Apache to serve your_domain using /var/www/your_domain as the web root directory. If you'd like to test Apache without a domain name, you can remove or comment out the options ServerName and ServerAlias by adding a # character in the beginning of each option's lines.

      You can now use a2ensite to enable this virtual host:

      • sudo a2ensite your_domain

      You might want to disable the default website that comes installed with Apache. This is required if you're not using a custom domain name, because in this case Apache's default configuration would overwrite your Virtual Host. To disable Apache's default website, type:

      • sudo a2dissite 000-default

      To make sure your configuration file doesn't contain syntax errors, you can run:

      • sudo apache2ctl configtest

      Finally, reload Apache so these changes take effect:

      • sudo systemctl reload apache2

      Your new website is now active, but the web root /var/www/your_domain is still empty. In the next step, we'll create a PHP script to test the new setup and confirm that PHP is correctly installed and configured on your server.

      Step 5 — Testing PHP Processing on your Web Server

      Now that you have a custom location to host your website's files and folders, we'll create a simple PHP test script to confirm that Apache is able to handle and process requests for PHP files.

      Create a new file named info.php inside your custom web root folder:

      • nano /var/www/your_domain/info.php

      This will open a blank file. Add the following text, which is valid PHP code, inside the file:

      /var/www/your_domain/info.php

      <?php
      phpinfo();
      

      When you are finished, save and close the file.

      Now you can test whether your web server is able to correctly display content generated by this PHP script. To try this out, visit this page in your web browser. You'll need your server's public IP address again.

      The address you will want to visit is:

      http://your_domain/info.php
      

      You should see a page similar to this:

      Debian 10 default PHP info

      This page provides some basic information about your server from the perspective of PHP. It is useful for debugging and to ensure that your settings are being applied correctly.

      If you can see this page in your browser, then your PHP installation is working as expected.

      After checking the relevant information about your PHP server through that page, it's best to remove the file you created as it contains sensitive information about your PHP environment and your Debian server. You can use rm to do so:

      • sudo rm /var/www/your_domain/info.php

      You can always recreate this page if you need to access the information again later.

      Step 6 — Testing Database Connection from PHP (Optional)

      If you want to test whether PHP is able to connect to MariaDB and execute database queries, you can create a test table with dummy data and query for its contents from a PHP script.

      First, connect to the MariaDB console with the database user you created in Step 2 of this guide:

      • mariadb -u example_user -p

      Create a table named todo_list. From the MariaDB console, run the following statement:

      • CREATE TABLE example_database.todo_list (
      • item_id INT AUTO_INCREMENT,
      • content VARCHAR(255),
      • PRIMARY KEY(item_id)
      • );

      Now, insert a few rows of content in the test table. You might want to repeat the next command a few times, using different values:

      • INSERT INTO example_database.todo_list (content) VALUES ("My first important item");

      To confirm that the data was successfully saved to your table, run:

      • SELECT * FROM example_database.todo_list;

      You will see the following output:

      Output

      +---------+--------------------------+ | item_id | content | +---------+--------------------------+ | 1 | My first important item | | 2 | My second important item | | 3 | My third important item | | 4 | and this one more thing | +---------+--------------------------+ 4 rows in set (0.000 sec)

      After confirming that you have valid data in your test table, you can exit the MariaDB console:

      Now you can create the PHP script that will connect to MariaDB and query for your content. Create a new PHP file in your custom web root directory using your preferred editor. We'll use nano for that:

      • nano /var/www/your_domain/todo_list.php

      The following PHP script connects to the MariaDB database and queries for the content of the todo_list table, exhibiting the results in a list. If there's a problem with the database connection, it will throw an exception.
      Copy this content into your todo_list.php script:

      /var/www/your_domain/todo_list.php

      <?php
      $user = "example_user";
      $password = "password";
      $database = "example_database";
      $table = "todo_list";
      
      try {
        $db = new PDO("mysql:host=localhost;dbname=$database", $user, $password);
        echo "<h2>TODO</h2><ol>"; 
        foreach($db->query("SELECT content FROM $table") as $row) {
          echo "<li>" . $row['content'] . "</li>";
        }
        echo "</ol>";
      } catch (PDOException $e) {
          print "Error!: " . $e->getMessage() . "<br/>";
          die();
      }
      

      Save and close the file when you're done editing.

      You can now access this page in your web browser by visiting the domain name or public IP address for your website, followed by /todo_list.php:

      http://your_domain/todo_list.php
      

      You should see a page like this, showing the content you've inserted in your test table:

      Example PHP todo list

      That means your PHP environment is ready to connect and interact with your MariaDB server.

      Conclusion

      In this guide, we've built a flexible foundation for serving PHP websites and applications to your visitors, using Apache as web server and MariaDB as database system.

      To further improve your current setup, you can install an OpenSSL certificate for your website using Let's Encrypt.



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      Deploy a LAMP Stack with One-Click Apps


      Updated by Linode

      Contributed by

      Linode

      LAMP Stack One-Click App

      A LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP) stack is a popular, free, and open-source web software bundle used for hosting websites on Linux. This software environment is a foundation for popular PHP application frameworks like WordPress, Drupal, and Laravel. After you deploy your LAMP One-Click App, you can upload your existing PHP application code to it or use a PHP framework to write a new application on your Linode.

      Deploy a LAMP Stack with One-Click Apps

      One-Click Apps allow you to easily deploy software on a Linode using the Linode Cloud Manager. To access Linode’s One-Click Apps:

      1. Log in to your Linode Cloud Manager account.

      2. From the Linode dashboard, click on the Create button in the top left-hand side of the screen and select Linode from the dropdown menu.

      3. The Linode creation page will appear. Select the One-Click tab.

      4. Under the Select App section, select the app you would like to deploy:

        Select a One-Click App to deploy

      5. Once you have selected the app, proceed to the app’s Options section and provide values for the required fields.

      The LAMP Stack Options section of this guide provides details on all available configuration options for this app.

      LAMP Stack Options

      Field Description
      MySQL Root Password The root password for your LAMP stack’s MySQL database. This is not the same as your Linode’s root password. Required.

      Linode Options

      After providing the app-specific options, enter configuration values for your Linode server:

      Configuration Description
      Select an Image Debian 9 is currently the only image supported by the LAMP One-Click App, and it is pre-selected on the Linode creation page. Required.
      Region The region where you would like your Linode to reside. In general, it’s best to choose a location that’s closest to you. For more information on choosing a DC, review the How to Choose a Data Center guide. You can also generate MTR reports for a deeper look at the network routes between you and each of our data centers. Required.
      Linode Plan Your Linode’s hardware resources. The Linode plan you deploy your LAMP stack on should account for the estimated workload. If you are standing up a simple web page, you can use a Nanode or 2GB Linode. If you are standing up a larger or more robust web app, then consider a plan with higher RAM and CPU allocations. If you decide that you need more or fewer hardware resources after you deploy your app, you can always resize your Linode to a different plan. Required.
      Linode Label The name for your Linode, which must be unique between all of the Linodes on your account. This name will be how you identify your server in the Cloud Manager’s Dashboard. Required.
      Root Password The primary administrative password for your Linode instance. This password must be provided when you log in to your Linode via SSH. It must be at least 6 characters long and contain characters from two of the following categories: lowercase and uppercase case letters, numbers, and punctuation characters. Your root password can be used to perform any action on your server, so make it long, complex, and unique. Required.

      When you’ve provided all required Linode Options, click on the Create button. Your LAMP Stack app will complete installation anywhere between 2-3 minutes after your Linode has finished provisioning.

      Getting Started After Deployment

      After your LAMP stack has finished deploying, you can:

      • Connect to your Linode via SSH. You will need your Linode’s root password to proceed. Note that your Linode’s web root will be located in the /var/www/html directory.

      • Navigate to the public IP address of your Linode in a browser. You will see the PHP settings that are active for your Linode.

      • Consult the following guides to learn more about working with the various components of the LAMP stack:

      • Upload files to your web root directory with an SFTP application like FileZilla. Use the same root credentials that you would use for SSH.

      • Assign a domain name to your Linode’s IP address. Review the DNS Manager guide for instructions on setting up your DNS records in the Cloud Manager, and read through DNS Records: An Introduction for general information about how DNS works.

      Software Included

      The LAMP Stack One-Click App will install the following software on your Linode:

      Software Description
      Apache HTTP Server Web server that can be used to serve your site or web application.
      MySQL Server Relational database.
      PHP 7 General purpose programming language.
      UFW (Uncomplicated Firewall) Firewall utility. Ports 22/tcp, 80/tcp, and 443/tcp for IPv4 and IPv6 will allow outgoing and incoming traffic.

      More Information

      You may wish to consult the following resources for additional information on this topic. While these are provided in the hope that they will be useful, please note that we cannot vouch for the accuracy or timeliness of externally hosted materials.

      Find answers, ask questions, and help others.

      This guide is published under a CC BY-ND 4.0 license.



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