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      How to Use Block Storage with Your Linode


      Updated by Linode

      Written by Linode


      Use promo code DOCS10 for $10 credit on a new account.

      How to Use Block Storage with Your Linode

      Linode’s Block Storage service allows you to attach additional storage volumes to your Linode. A single volume can range from 10 GiB to 10,000 GiB in size and costs $0.10/GiB per month. They can be partitioned however you like and can accommodate any filesystem type you choose. Up to eight volumes can be attached to a single Linode, be it new or already existing, so you do not need to recreate your server to add a Block Storage Volume.

      The Block Storage service is currently available in the Dallas, Fremont, Frankfurt, London, Newark, and Singapore data centers.

      Caution

      • Linode’s backup services do not cover Block Storage Volumes. You must execute your own backups for this data.

      • Your Linode must be running in Paravirtualization mode. Block storage currently does not support Full-virtualization.

      How to Add a Block Storage Volume to a Linode

      This guide assumes a Linode with the root disk mounted as /dev/sda and swap space mounted as /dev/sdb. In this scenario, the Block Storage Volume will be available to the operating system as /dev/disk/by-id/scsi-0Linode_Volume_EXAMPLE, where EXAMPLE is a label you assign the volume in the Linode Manager. Storage volumes can be added when your Linode is already running, and will show immediately in /dev/disk/by-id/.

      Add a Volume from the Linode Dashboard

      1. Go to the page of the Linode to which you want to attach a Block Storage Volume.

        Select a Linode from the Manager

      2. Click on the Volumes tab, then click Add a Volume:

        Click Add a Volume

      3. Assign the Block Storage Volume a label and size. The label can be up to 32 characters long and consist only of ASCII characters a-z; 0-9.-_. The maximum volume size is 10,000 GiB. When finished, click Submit:

        Create a Volume with a label.

        Note

        There is currently a soft limit of 100 TB of Block Storage Volume per account.

      4. Once you add a volume it will appear under Attached Volumes with the new volume’s label, size, and file system path.

        A Volume has been created

      5. You’ll need to create a filesystem in your new volume. If your Linode is not already running, boot then SSH into your Linode and execute the following command, where FILE_SYSTEM_PATH is your volume’s file system path:

        mkfs.ext4 FILE_SYSTEM_PATH
        
      6. Once the volume has a filesystem, you can create a mountpoint for it:

        mkdir /mnt/BlockStorage1
        
      7. You can then mount the new volume:

        mount FILE_SYSTEM_PATH /mnt/BlockStorage1
        
      8. If you want to mount the new volume automatically every time your Linode boots, you’ll want to add the following line to your /etc/fstab file:

        FILE_SYSTEM_PATH /mnt/BlockStorage1 ext4 defaults 0 2
        

      Attach a Volume from Your Account’s Volume List

      1. Click on the Volumes page of the Linode Manager to see your account’s volume list:

        View your available Volumes

      2. Click the menu option (three dots) for the volume you want to attach to a Linode and select Attach:

        Open volume menu.

      3. Select the label of the Linode you want to attach the volume to from the dropdown menu, then click Save:

        Attach a Volume to a Linode

        Note

        The Linodes available in this dropdown menu all share the same region as your volume.

      4. You’ll need to create a filesystem in your new volume. If your Linode is not already running, boot then SSH into your Linode and execute the following command, where FILE_SYSTEM_PATH is your volume’s file system path:

        mkfs.ext4 FILE_SYSTEM_PATH
        
      5. Once the volume has a filesystem, you can create a mountpoint for it:

        mkdir /mnt/BlockStorage1
        
      6. You can then mount the new volume, where FILE_SYSTEM_PATH is your volume’s file system path:

        mount FILE_SYSTEM_PATH /mnt/BlockStorage1
        
      7. If you want to mount the new volume automatically every time your Linode boots, you’ll want to add the following line to your /etc/fstab file:

        FILE_SYSTEM_PATH /mnt/BlockStorage1
        

      How to Detach a Block Storage Volume from a Linode

      1. Go back to the page of the Linode which the volume is attached to. Shut down the Linode.

      2. When the Linode is powered off, click on the Volumes tab, then click Detach under the volume’s menu (three dots):

        Detach a Volume from a Linode from the Volume menu.

      3. A confirmation screen appears and explains that the volume will be detached from the Linode. Click Detach to confirm:

        Linode Manager detach volume confirmation

        The Linode’s dashboard does not show the volume present anymore:

        The Linode's Volumes tab shows no attached volumes.

        The volume still exists on your account and you can see it if you view the Volumes page:

        Volume not attached, but still exists.

      How to Delete a Block Storage Volume

      Caution

      The removal process is irreversible, and the data will be permanently deleted.

      1. Shut down the attached Linode.

      2. Detach the volume as described above.

      3. Click the volume’s Delete option on the Volumes page.

        Delete a Volume

      How to Resize a Block Storage Volume

      Storage volumes cannot be sized down, only up. Keep this in mind when sizing your volumes.

      1. Shut down your Linode.

      2. Click the Resize option for the volume you want to resize.

        Select Resize from the Volume menu.

      3. Enter the new volume size. The minimum size is 10 GiB and maximum is 10,000 GiB. Then click Submit.

        Resize Volume menu.

      4. You’ll be returned to the volume list and the notification bell in the top right of the page will notify you when the resizing is complete.

        Notification bell shows the Volume has been resized.

      5. Reboot your Linode.

      6. Once your Linode has restarted, make sure the volume is unmounted for safety:

        umount /dev/disk/by-id/scsi-0Linode_Volume_BlockStorage1
        
      7. Assuming you have an ext2, ext3, or ext4 partition, resize it to fill the new volume size:

        resize2fs /dev/disk/by-id/scsi-0Linode_Volume_BlockStorage1
        
      8. Mount it back onto the filesystem:

        mount /dev/disk/by-id/scsi-0Linode_Volume_BlockStorage1 /mnt/BlockStorage1
        

      Where to Go From Here?

      Need ideas for what to do with space? We have several guides which walk you through installing software that would make a great pairing with large storage volumes:

      Install Seafile with NGINX on Ubuntu 16.04

      Install Plex Media Server on Ubuntu 16.04

      Big Data in the Linode Cloud: Streaming Data Processing with Apache Storm

      Using Subsonic to Stream Media From Your Linode

      Install GitLab on Ubuntu 14.04

      Join our Community

      Find answers, ask questions, and help others.

      This guide is published under a CC BY-ND 4.0 license.



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      Proxy Burp Suite Traffic Through a Linode


      Updated by Linode

      Written by Linode


      Use promo code DOCS10 for $10 credit on a new account.

      When testing with Burp Suite, you may find yourself working in an environment with specific network restrictions. For example, a firewall appliance can interfere with your testing by dropping or modifying packets, resulting in false positives or false negatives.

      One workaround is to proxy Burp’s traffic through a Linode. Doing this will bypass local network restrictions and pipe everything directly to the internet via Linode’s network.

      1. Configure your browser to work with Burp.

      2. If you haven’t already, install Burp’s CA certificate in your browser.

      3. Open an SSH connection to your Linode through port 12345. This will be used to pass local traffic to your Linode, so keep this terminal window running in the background during testing.

        ssh -D 12345 root@your_linode_ip_address
        
      4. In Burp Suite, go to the Project Options tab, then the Connections tab.

      5. Under SOCKS Proxy, enable the Override user options toggle. You’ll see form field options appear.

      6. Make the following changes:

        • Enable Use SOCKS proxy.

        • In the text field labeled SOCKS proxy host, enter localhost.

        • In the text field labeled SOCKS proxy port, enter the port number you started the SSH connection with above.

        • Enable Do DNS lookups over SOCKS proxy.

        Burp Suite proxy settings

      7. All browser traffic will now be forwarded from Burp to your Linode over the SSH connection, then out to the internet. Confirm this by visiting https://whatsmyip.com/ with the browser you configured for Burp. The result should show your Linode’s public IP address.

      This guide was written with permission from and in collaboration with Jesse Kinser.

      Join our Community

      Find answers, ask questions, and help others.

      This guide is published under a CC BY-ND 4.0 license.



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      How to Use Block Storage with Your Linode


      Updated by Linode

      Written by Linode


      Use promo code DOCS10 for $10 credit on a new account.

      How to Use Block Storage with Your Linode

      Linode’s Block Storage service allows you to attach additional storage volumes to your Linode. A single volume can range from 10 GiB to 10,000 GiB in size and costs $0.10/GiB per month. They can be partitioned however you like and can accommodate any filesystem type you choose. Up to eight volumes can be attached to a single Linode, be it new or already existing, so you do not need to recreate your server to add a Block Storage Volume.

      The Block Storage service is currently available in the Dallas, Fremont, Frankfurt, London, Newark, and Singapore data centers.

      Caution

      • Linode’s backup services do not cover Block Storage Volumes. You must execute your own backups for this data.

      • Your Linode must be running in Paravirtualization mode. Block storage currently does not support Full-virtualization.

      How to Add a Block Storage Volume to a Linode

      This guide assumes a Linode with the root disk mounted as /dev/sda and swap space mounted as /dev/sdb. In this scenario, the Block Storage Volume will be available to the operating system as /dev/disk/by-id/scsi-0Linode_Volume_EXAMPLE, where EXAMPLE is a label you assign the volume in the Linode Manager. Storage volumes can be added when your Linode is already running, and will show immediately in /dev/disk/by-id/.

      Add a Volume from the Linode Dashboard

      1. Go to the page of the Linode to which you want to attach a Block Storage Volume.

        Select a Linode from the Manager

      2. Click on the Volumes tab, then click Add a Volume:

        Click Add a Volume

      3. Assign the Block Storage Volume a label and size. The label can be up to 32 characters long and consist only of ASCII characters a-z; 0-9.-_. The maximum volume size is 10,000 GiB. When finished, click Submit:

        Create a Volume with a label.

        Note

        There is currently a soft limit of 100 TB of Block Storage Volume per account.

      4. Once you add a volume it will appear under Attached Volumes with the new volume’s label, size, and file system path.

        A Volume has been created

      5. You’ll need to create a filesystem in your new volume. If your Linode is not already running, boot then SSH into your Linode and execute the following command, where FILE_SYSTEM_PATH is your volume’s file system path:

        mkfs.ext4 FILE_SYSTEM_PATH
        
      6. Once the volume has a filesystem, you can create a mountpoint for it:

        mkdir /mnt/BlockStorage1
        
      7. You can then mount the new volume:

        mount FILE_SYSTEM_PATH /mnt/BlockStorage1
        
      8. If you want to mount the new volume automatically every time your Linode boots, you’ll want to add the following line to your /etc/fstab file:

        FILE_SYSTEM_PATH /mnt/BlockStorage1 ext4 defaults 0 2
        

      Attach a Volume from Your Account’s Volume List

      1. Click on the Volumes page of the Linode Manager to see your account’s volume list:

        View your available Volumes

      2. Click the menu option (three dots) for the volume you want to attach to a Linode and select Attach:

        Open volume menu.

      3. Select the label of the Linode you want to attach the volume to from the dropdown menu, then click Save:

        Attach a Volume to a Linode

        Note

        The Linodes available in this dropdown menu all share the same region as your volume.

      4. You’ll need to create a filesystem in your new volume. If your Linode is not already running, boot then SSH into your Linode and execute the following command, where FILE_SYSTEM_PATH is your volume’s file system path:

        mkfs.ext4 FILE_SYSTEM_PATH
        
      5. Once the volume has a filesystem, you can create a mountpoint for it:

        mkdir /mnt/BlockStorage1
        
      6. You can then mount the new volume, where FILE_SYSTEM_PATH is your volume’s file system path:

        mount FILE_SYSTEM_PATH /mnt/BlockStorage1
        
      7. If you want to mount the new volume automatically every time your Linode boots, you’ll want to add the following line to your /etc/fstab file:

        FILE_SYSTEM_PATH /mnt/BlockStorage1
        

      How to Detach a Block Storage Volume from a Linode

      1. Go back to the page of the Linode which the volume is attached to. Shut down the Linode.

      2. When the Linode is powered off, click on the Volumes tab, then click Detach under the volume’s menu (three dots):

        Detach a Volume from a Linode from the Volume menu.

      3. A confirmation screen appears and explains that the volume will be detached from the Linode. Click Detach to confirm:

        Linode Manager detach volume confirmation

        The Linode’s dashboard does not show the volume present anymore:

        The Linode's Volumes tab shows no attached volumes.

        The volume still exists on your account and you can see it if you view the Volumes page:

        Volume not attached, but still exists.

      How to Delete a Block Storage Volume

      Caution

      The removal process is irreversible, and the data will be permanently deleted.

      1. Shut down the attached Linode.

      2. Detach the volume as described above.

      3. Click the volume’s Delete option on the Volumes page.

        Delete a Volume

      How to Resize a Block Storage Volume

      Storage volumes cannot be sized down, only up. Keep this in mind when sizing your volumes.

      1. Shut down your Linode.

      2. Click the Resize option for the volume you want to resize.

        Select Resize from the Volume menu.

      3. Enter the new volume size. The minimum size is 10 GiB and maximum is 10,000 GiB. Then click Submit.

        Resize Volume menu.

      4. You’ll be returned to the volume list and the notification bell in the top right of the page will notify you when the resizing is complete.

        Notification bell shows the Volume has been resized.

      5. Reboot your Linode.

      6. Once your Linode has restarted, make sure the volume is unmounted for safety:

        umount /dev/disk/by-id/scsi-0Linode_Volume_BlockStorage1
        
      7. Assuming you have an ext2, ext3, or ext4 partition, resize it to fill the new volume size:

        resize2fs /dev/disk/by-id/scsi-0Linode_Volume_BlockStorage1
        
      8. Mount it back onto the filesystem:

        mount /dev/disk/by-id/scsi-0Linode_Volume_BlockStorage1 /mnt/BlockStorage1
        

      Where to Go From Here?

      Need ideas for what to do with space? We have several guides which walk you through installing software that would make a great pairing with large storage volumes:

      Install Seafile with NGINX on Ubuntu 16.04

      Install Plex Media Server on Ubuntu 16.04

      Big Data in the Linode Cloud: Streaming Data Processing with Apache Storm

      Using Subsonic to Stream Media From Your Linode

      Install GitLab on Ubuntu 14.04

      Join our Community

      Find answers, ask questions, and help others.

      This guide is published under a CC BY-ND 4.0 license.



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