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      How To Deploy a PHP Application with Kubernetes on Ubuntu 18.04


      The author selected Electronic Frontier Foundation to receive a donation as part of the Write for DOnations program.

      Introduction

      Kubernetes is an open source container orchestration system. It allows you to create, update, and scale containers without worrying about downtime.

      To run a PHP application, Nginx acts as a proxy to PHP-FPM. Containerizing this setup in a single container can be a cumbersome process, but Kubernetes will help manage both services in separate containers. Using Kubernetes will allow you to keep your containers reusable and swappable, and you will not have to rebuild your container image every time there’s a new version of Nginx or PHP.

      In this tutorial, you will deploy a PHP 7 application on a Kubernetes cluster with Nginx and PHP-FPM running in separate containers. You will also learn how to keep your configuration files and application code outside the container image using DigitalOcean’s Block Storage system. This approach will allow you to reuse the Nginx image for any application that needs a web/proxy server by passing a configuration volume, rather than rebuilding the image.

      Prerequisites

      Step 1 — Creating the PHP-FPM and Nginx Services

      In this step, you will create the PHP-FPM and Nginx services. A service allows access to a set of pods from within the cluster. Services within a cluster can communicate directly through their names, without the need for IP addresses. The PHP-FPM service will allow access to the PHP-FPM pods, while the Nginx service will allow access to the Nginx pods.

      Since Nginx pods will proxy the PHP-FPM pods, you will need to tell the service how to find them. Instead of using IP addresses, you will take advantage of Kubernetes’ automatic service discovery to use human-readable names to route requests to the appropriate service.

      To create the service, you will create an object definition file. Every Kubernetes object definition is a YAML file that contains at least the following items:

      • apiVersion: The version of the Kubernetes API that the definition belongs to.
      • kind: The Kubernetes object this file represents. For example, a pod or service.
      • metadata: This contains the name of the object along with any labels that you may wish to apply to it.
      • spec: This contains a specific configuration depending on the kind of object you are creating, such as the container image or the ports on which the container will be accessible from.

      First you will create a directory to hold your Kubernetes object definitions.

      SSH to your master node and create the definitions directory that will hold your Kubernetes object definitions.

      Navigate to the newly created definitions directory:

      Make your PHP-FPM service by creating a php_service.yaml file:

      Set kind as Service to specify that this object is a service:

      php_service.yaml

      apiVersion: v1
      kind: Service
      

      Name the service php since it will provide access to PHP-FPM:

      php_service.yaml

      ...
      metadata:
        name: php
      

      You will logically group different objects with labels. In this tutorial, you will use labels to group the objects into "tiers", such as frontend or backend. The PHP pods will run behind this service, so you will label it as tier: backend.

      php_service.yaml

      ...
        labels:
          tier: backend
      

      A service determines which pods to access by using selector labels. A pod that matches these labels will be serviced, independent of whether the pod was created before or after the service. You will add labels for your pods later in the tutorial.

      Use the tier: backend label to assign the pod into the back-end tier. You will also add the app: php label to specify that this pod runs PHP. Add these two labels after the metadata section.

      php_service.yaml

      ...
      spec:
        selector:
          app: php
          tier: backend
      

      Next, specify the port used to access this service. You will use port 9000 in this tutorial. Add it to the php_service.yaml file under spec:

      php_service.yaml

      ...
        ports:
          - protocol: TCP
            port: 9000
      

      Your completed php_service.yaml file will look like this:

      php_service.yaml

      apiVersion: v1
      kind: Service
      metadata:
        name: php
        labels:
          tier: backend
      spec:
        selector:
          app: php
          tier: backend
        ports:
        - protocol: TCP
          port: 9000
      

      Hit CTRL + O to save the file, and then CTRL + X to exit nano.

      Now that you've created the object definition for your service, to run the service you will use the kubectl apply command along with the -f argument and specify your php_service.yaml file.

      Create your service:

      • kubectl apply -f php_service.yaml

      This output confirms the service creation:

      Output

      service/php created

      Verify that your service is running:

      You will see your PHP-FPM service running:

      Output

      NAME TYPE CLUSTER-IP EXTERNAL-IP PORT(S) AGE kubernetes ClusterIP 10.96.0.1 <none> 443/TCP 10m php ClusterIP 10.100.59.238 <none> 9000/TCP 5m

      There are various service types that Kubernetes supports. Your php service uses the default service type, ClusterIP. This service type assigns an internal IP and makes the service reachable only from within the cluster.

      Now that the PHP-FPM service is ready, you will create the Nginx service. Create and open a new file called nginx_service.yaml with the editor:

      This service will target Nginx pods, so you will name it nginx. You will also add a tier: backend label as it belongs in the back-end tier:

      nginx_service.yaml

      apiVersion: v1
      kind: Service
      metadata:
        name: nginx
        labels:
          tier: backend
      

      Similar to the php service, target the pods with the selector labels app: nginx and tier: backend. Make this service accessible on port 80, the default HTTP port.

      nginx_service.yaml

      ...
      spec:
        selector:
          app: nginx
          tier: backend
        ports:
        - protocol: TCP
          port: 80
      

      The Nginx service will be publicly accessible to the internet from your Droplet's public IP address. your_public_ip can be found from your DigitalOcean Control Panel. Under spec.externalIPs, add:

      nginx_service.yaml

      ...
      spec:
        externalIPs:
        - your_public_ip
      

      Your nginx_service.yaml file will look like this:

      nginx_service.yaml

      apiVersion: v1
      kind: Service
      metadata:
        name: nginx
        labels:
          tier: backend
      spec:
        selector:
          app: nginx
          tier: backend
        ports:
        - protocol: TCP
          port: 80
        externalIPs:
        - your_public_ip    
      

      Save and close the file. Create the Nginx service:

      • kubectl apply -f nginx_service.yaml

      You will see the following output when the service is running:

      Output

      service/nginx created

      You can view all running services by executing:

      You will see both the PHP-FPM and Nginx services listed in the output:

      Output

      NAME TYPE CLUSTER-IP EXTERNAL-IP PORT(S) AGE kubernetes ClusterIP 10.96.0.1 <none> 443/TCP 13m nginx ClusterIP 10.102.160.47 your_public_ip 80/TCP 50s php ClusterIP 10.100.59.238 <none> 9000/TCP 8m

      Please note, if you want to delete a service you can run:

      • kubectl delete svc/service_name

      Now that you've created your PHP-FPM and Nginx services, you will need to specify where to store your application code and configuration files.

      Step 2 — Installing the DigitalOcean Storage Plug-In

      Kubernetes provides different storage plug-ins that can create the storage space for your environment. In this step, you will install the DigitalOcean storage plug-in to create block storage on DigitalOcean. Once the installation is complete, it will add a storage class named do-block-storage that you will use to create your block storage.

      You will first configure a Kubernetes Secret object to store your DigitalOcean API token. Secret objects are used to share sensitive information, like SSH keys and passwords, with other Kubernetes objects within the same namespace. Namespaces provide a way to logically separate your Kubernetes objects.

      Open a file named secret.yaml with the editor:

      You will name your Secret object digitalocean and add it to the kube-system namespace. The kube-system namespace is the default namespace for Kubernetes’ internal services and is also used by the DigitalOcean storage plug-in to launch various components.

      secret.yaml

      apiVersion: v1
      kind: Secret
      metadata:
        name: digitalocean
        namespace: kube-system
      

      Instead of a spec key, a Secret uses a data or stringData key to hold the required information. The data parameter holds base64 encoded data that is automatically decoded when retrieved. The stringData parameter holds non-encoded data that is automatically encoded during creation or updates, and does not output the data when retrieving Secrets. You will use stringData in this tutorial for convenience.

      Add the access-token as stringData:

      secret.yaml

      ...
      stringData:
        access-token: your-api-token
      

      Save and exit the file.

      Your secret.yaml file will look like this:

      secret.yaml

      apiVersion: v1
      kind: Secret
      metadata:
        name: digitalocean
        namespace: kube-system
      stringData:
        access-token: your-api-token
      

      Create the secret:

      • kubectl apply -f secret.yaml

      You will see this output upon Secret creation:

      Output

      secret/digitalocean created

      You can view the secret with the following command:

      • kubectl -n kube-system get secret digitalocean

      The output will look similar to this:

      Output

      NAME TYPE DATA AGE digitalocean Opaque 1 41s

      The Opaque type means that this Secret is read-only, which is standard for stringData Secrets. You can read more about it on the Secret design spec. The DATA field shows the number of items stored in this Secret. In this case, it shows 1 because you have a single key stored.

      Now that your Secret is in place, install the DigitalOcean block storage plug-in:

      • kubectl apply -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/digitalocean/csi-digitalocean/master/deploy/kubernetes/releases/csi-digitalocean-v1.1.0.yaml

      You will see output similar to the following:

      Output

      csidriver.storage.k8s.io/dobs.csi.digitalocean.com created customresourcedefinition.apiextensions.k8s.io/volumesnapshotclasses.snapshot.storage.k8s.io created customresourcedefinition.apiextensions.k8s.io/volumesnapshotcontents.snapshot.storage.k8s.io created customresourcedefinition.apiextensions.k8s.io/volumesnapshots.snapshot.storage.k8s.io created storageclass.storage.k8s.io/do-block-storage created statefulset.apps/csi-do-controller created serviceaccount/csi-do-controller-sa created clusterrole.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/csi-do-provisioner-role created clusterrolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/csi-do-provisioner-binding created clusterrole.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/csi-do-attacher-role created clusterrolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/csi-do-attacher-binding created clusterrole.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/csi-do-snapshotter-role created clusterrolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/csi-do-snapshotter-binding created daemonset.apps/csi-do-node created serviceaccount/csi-do-node-sa created clusterrole.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/csi-do-node-driver-registrar-role created clusterrolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/csi-do-node-driver-registrar-binding created error: unable to recognize "https://raw.githubusercontent.com/digitalocean/csi-digitalocean/master/deploy/kubernetes/releases/csi-digitalocean-v1.1.0.yaml": no matches for kind "VolumeSnapshotClass" in version "snapshot.storage.k8s.io/v1alpha1"

      For this tutorial, it is safe to ignore the errors.

      Now that you have installed the DigitalOcean storage plug-in, you can create block storage to hold your application code and configuration files.

      Step 3 — Creating the Persistent Volume

      With your Secret in place and the block storage plug-in installed, you are now ready to create your Persistent Volume. A Persistent Volume, or PV, is block storage of a specified size that lives independently of a pod’s life cycle. Using a Persistent Volume will allow you to manage or update your pods without worrying about losing your application code. A Persistent Volume is accessed by using a PersistentVolumeClaim, or PVC, which mounts the PV at the required path.

      Open a file named code_volume.yaml with your editor:

      Name the PVC code by adding the following parameters and values to your file:

      code_volume.yaml

      apiVersion: v1
      kind: PersistentVolumeClaim
      metadata:
        name: code
      

      The spec for a PVC contains the following items:

      • accessModes which vary by the use case. These are:
        • ReadWriteOnce – mounts the volume as read-write by a single node
        • ReadOnlyMany – mounts the volume as read-only by many nodes
        • ReadWriteMany – mounts the volume as read-write by many nodes
      • resources – the storage space that you require

      DigitalOcean block storage is only mounted to a single node, so you will set the accessModes to ReadWriteOnce. This tutorial will guide you through adding a small amount of application code, so 1GB will be plenty in this use case. If you plan on storing a larger amount of code or data on the volume, you can modify the storage parameter to fit your requirements. You can increase the amount of storage after volume creation, but shrinking the disk is not supported.

      code_volume.yaml

      ...
      spec:
        accessModes:
        - ReadWriteOnce
        resources:
          requests:
            storage: 1Gi
      

      Next, specify the storage class that Kubernetes will use to provision the volumes. You will use the do-block-storage class created by the DigitalOcean block storage plug-in.

      code_volume.yaml

      ...
        storageClassName: do-block-storage
      

      Your code_volume.yaml file will look like this:

      code_volume.yaml

      apiVersion: v1
      kind: PersistentVolumeClaim
      metadata:
        name: code
      spec:
        accessModes:
        - ReadWriteOnce
        resources:
          requests:
            storage: 1Gi
        storageClassName: do-block-storage
      

      Save and exit the file.

      Create the code PVC using kubectl:

      • kubectl apply -f code_volume.yaml

      The following output tells you that the object was successfully created, and you are ready to mount your 1GB PVC as a volume.

      Output

      persistentvolumeclaim/code created

      To view available Persistent Volumes (PV):

      You will see your PV listed:

      Output

      NAME CAPACITY ACCESS MODES RECLAIM POLICY STATUS CLAIM STORAGECLASS REASON AGE pvc-ca4df10f-ab8c-11e8-b89d-12331aa95b13 1Gi RWO Delete Bound default/code do-block-storage 2m

      The fields above are an overview of your configuration file, except for Reclaim Policy and Status. The Reclaim Policy defines what is done with the PV after the PVC accessing it is deleted. Delete removes the PV from Kubernetes as well as the DigitalOcean infrastructure. You can learn more about the Reclaim Policy and Status from the Kubernetes PV documentation.

      You've successfully created a Persistent Volume using the DigitalOcean block storage plug-in. Now that your Persistent Volume is ready, you will create your pods using a Deployment.

      Step 4 — Creating a PHP-FPM Deployment

      In this step, you will learn how to use a Deployment to create your PHP-FPM pod. Deployments provide a uniform way to create, update, and manage pods by using ReplicaSets. If an update does not work as expected, a Deployment will automatically rollback its pods to a previous image.

      The Deployment spec.selector key will list the labels of the pods it will manage. It will also use the template key to create the required pods.

      This step will also introduce the use of Init Containers. Init Containers run one or more commands before the regular containers specified under the pod's template key. In this tutorial, your Init Container will fetch a sample index.php file from GitHub Gist using wget. These are the contents of the sample file:

      index.php

      <?php
      echo phpinfo(); 
      

      To create your Deployment, open a new file called php_deployment.yaml with your editor:

      This Deployment will manage your PHP-FPM pods, so you will name the Deployment object php. The pods belong to the back-end tier, so you will group the Deployment into this group by using the tier: backend label:

      php_deployment.yaml

      apiVersion: apps/v1
      kind: Deployment
      metadata:
        name: php
        labels:
          tier: backend
      

      For the Deployment spec, you will specify how many copies of this pod to create by using the replicas parameter. The number of replicas will vary depending on your needs and available resources. You will create one replica in this tutorial:

      php_deployment.yaml

      ...
      spec:
        replicas: 1
      

      This Deployment will manage pods that match the app: php and tier: backend labels. Under selector key add:

      php_deployment.yaml

      ...
        selector:
          matchLabels:
            app: php
            tier: backend
      

      Next, the Deployment spec requires the template for your pod's object definition. This template will define specifications to create the pod from. First, you will add the labels that were specified for the php service selectors and the Deployment’s matchLabels. Add app: php and tier: backend under template.metadata.labels:

      php_deployment.yaml

      ...
        template:
          metadata:
            labels:
              app: php
              tier: backend
      

      A pod can have multiple containers and volumes, but each will need a name. You can selectively mount volumes to a container by specifying a mount path for each volume.

      First, specify the volumes that your containers will access. You created a PVC named code to hold your application code, so name this volume code as well. Under spec.template.spec.volumes, add the following:

      php_deployment.yaml

      ...
          spec:
            volumes:
            - name: code
              persistentVolumeClaim:
                claimName: code
      

      Next, specify the container you want to run in this pod. You can find various images on the Docker store, but in this tutorial you will use the php:7-fpm image.

      Under spec.template.spec.containers, add the following:

      php_deployment.yaml

      ...
            containers:
            - name: php
              image: php:7-fpm
      

      Next, you will mount the volumes that the container requires access to. This container will run your PHP code, so it will need access to the code volume. You will also use mountPath to specify /code as the mount point.

      Under spec.template.spec.containers.volumeMounts, add:

      php_deployment.yaml

      ...
              volumeMounts:
              - name: code
                mountPath: /code
      

      Now that you have mounted your volume, you need to get your application code on the volume. You may have previously used FTP/SFTP or cloned the code over an SSH connection to accomplish this, but this step will show you how to copy the code using an Init Container.

      Depending on the complexity of your setup process, you can either use a single initContainer to run a script that builds your application, or you can use one initContainer per command. Make sure that the volumes are mounted to the initContainer.

      In this tutorial, you will use a single Init Container with busybox to download the code. busybox is a small image that contains the wget utility that you will use to accomplish this.

      Under spec.template.spec, add your initContainer and specify the busybox image:

      php_deployment.yaml

      ...
            initContainers:
            - name: install
              image: busybox
      

      Your Init Container will need access to the code volume so that it can download the code in that location. Under spec.template.spec.initContainers, mount the volume code at the /code path:

      php_deployment.yaml

      ...
              volumeMounts:
              - name: code
                mountPath: /code
      

      Each Init Container needs to run a command. Your Init Container will use wget to download the code from Github into the /code working directory. The -O option gives the downloaded file a name, and you will name this file index.php.

      Note: Be sure to trust the code you’re pulling. Before pulling it to your server, inspect the source code to ensure you are comfortable with what the code does.

      Under the install container in spec.template.spec.initContainers, add these lines:

      php_deployment.yaml

      ...
              command:
              - wget
              - "-O"
              - "/code/index.php"
              - https://raw.githubusercontent.com/do-community/php-kubernetes/master/index.php
      

      Your completed php_deployment.yaml file will look like this:

      php_deployment.yaml

      apiVersion: apps/v1
      kind: Deployment
      metadata:
        name: php
        labels:
          tier: backend
      spec:
        replicas: 1
        selector:
          matchLabels:
            app: php
            tier: backend
        template:
          metadata:
            labels:
              app: php
              tier: backend
          spec:
            volumes:
            - name: code
              persistentVolumeClaim:
                claimName: code
            containers:
            - name: php
              image: php:7-fpm
              volumeMounts:
              - name: code
                mountPath: /code
            initContainers:
            - name: install
              image: busybox
              volumeMounts:
              - name: code
                mountPath: /code
              command:
              - wget
              - "-O"
              - "/code/index.php"
              - https://raw.githubusercontent.com/do-community/php-kubernetes/master/index.php
      

      Save the file and exit the editor.

      Create the PHP-FPM Deployment with kubectl:

      • kubectl apply -f php_deployment.yaml

      You will see the following output upon Deployment creation:

      Output

      deployment.apps/php created

      To summarize, this Deployment will start by downloading the specified images. It will then request the PersistentVolume from your PersistentVolumeClaim and serially run your initContainers. Once complete, the containers will run and mount the volumes to the specified mount point. Once all of these steps are complete, your pod will be up and running.

      You can view your Deployment by running:

      You will see the output:

      Output

      NAME DESIRED CURRENT UP-TO-DATE AVAILABLE AGE php 1 1 1 0 19s

      This output can help you understand the current state of the Deployment. A Deployment is one of the controllers that maintains a desired state. The template you created specifies that the DESIRED state will have 1 replicas of the pod named php. The CURRENT field indicates how many replicas are running, so this should match the DESIRED state. You can read about the remaining fields in the Kubernetes Deployments documentation.

      You can view the pods that this Deployment started with the following command:

      The output of this command varies depending on how much time has passed since creating the Deployment. If you run it shortly after creation, the output will likely look like this:

      Output

      NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE php-86d59fd666-bf8zd 0/1 Init:0/1 0 9s

      The columns represent the following information:

      • Ready: The number of replicas running this pod.
      • Status: The status of the pod. Init indicates that the Init Containers are running. In this output, 0 out of 1 Init Containers have finished running.
      • Restarts: How many times this process has restarted to start the pod. This number will increase if any of your Init Containers fail. The Deployment will restart it until it reaches a desired state.

      Depending on the complexity of your startup scripts, it can take a couple of minutes for the status to change to podInitializing:

      Output

      NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE php-86d59fd666-lkwgn 0/1 podInitializing 0 39s

      This means the Init Containers have finished and the containers are initializing. If you run the command when all of the containers are running, you will see the pod status change to Running.

      Output

      NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE php-86d59fd666-lkwgn 1/1 Running 0 1m

      You now see that your pod is running successfully. If your pod doesn't start, you can debug with the following commands:

      • View detailed information of a pod:
      • kubectl describe pods pod-name
      • View logs generated by a pod:
      • View logs for a specific container in a pod:
      • kubectl logs pod-name container-name

      Your application code is mounted and the PHP-FPM service is now ready to handle connections. You can now create your Nginx Deployment.

      Step 5 — Creating the Nginx Deployment

      In this step, you will use a ConfigMap to configure Nginx. A ConfigMap holds your configuration in a key-value format that you can reference in other Kubernetes object definitions. This approach will grant you the flexibility to reuse or swap the image with a different Nginx version if needed. Updating the ConfigMap will automatically replicate the changes to any pod mounting it.

      Create a nginx_configMap.yaml file for your ConfigMap with your editor:

      • nano nginx_configMap.yaml

      Name the ConfigMap nginx-config and group it into the tier: backend micro-service:

      nginx_configMap.yaml

      apiVersion: v1
      kind: ConfigMap
      metadata:
        name: nginx-config
        labels:
          tier: backend
      

      Next, you will add the data for the ConfigMap. Name the key config and add the contents of your Nginx configuration file as the value. You can use the example Nginx configuration from this tutorial.

      Because Kubernetes can route requests to the appropriate host for a service, you can enter the name of your PHP-FPM service in the fastcgi_pass parameter instead of its IP address. Add the following to your nginx_configMap.yaml file:

      nginx_configMap.yaml

      ...
      data:
        config : |
          server {
            index index.php index.html;
            error_log  /var/log/nginx/error.log;
            access_log /var/log/nginx/access.log;
            root /code;
      
            location / {
                try_files $uri $uri/ /index.php?$query_string;
            }
      
            location ~ .php$ {
                try_files $uri =404;
                fastcgi_split_path_info ^(.+.php)(/.+)$;
                fastcgi_pass php:9000;
                fastcgi_index index.php;
                include fastcgi_params;
                fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
                fastcgi_param PATH_INFO $fastcgi_path_info;
              }
          }
      

      Your nginx_configMap.yaml file will look like this:

      nginx_configMap.yaml

      apiVersion: v1
      kind: ConfigMap
      metadata:
        name: nginx-config
        labels:
          tier: backend
      data:
        config : |
          server {
            index index.php index.html;
            error_log  /var/log/nginx/error.log;
            access_log /var/log/nginx/access.log;
            root /code;
      
            location / {
                try_files $uri $uri/ /index.php?$query_string;
            }
      
            location ~ .php$ {
                try_files $uri =404;
                fastcgi_split_path_info ^(.+.php)(/.+)$;
                fastcgi_pass php:9000;
                fastcgi_index index.php;
                include fastcgi_params;
                fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
                fastcgi_param PATH_INFO $fastcgi_path_info;
              }
          }
      

      Save the file and exit the editor.

      Create the ConfigMap:

      • kubectl apply -f nginx_configMap.yaml

      You will see the following output:

      Output

      configmap/nginx-config created

      You've finished creating your ConfigMap and can now build your Nginx Deployment.

      Start by opening a new nginx_deployment.yaml file in the editor:

      • nano nginx_deployment.yaml

      Name the Deployment nginx and add the label tier: backend:

      nginx_deployment.yaml

      apiVersion: apps/v1
      kind: Deployment
      metadata:
        name: nginx
        labels:
          tier: backend
      

      Specify that you want one replicas in the Deployment spec. This Deployment will manage pods with labels app: nginx and tier: backend. Add the following parameters and values:

      nginx_deployment.yaml

      ...
      spec:
        replicas: 1
        selector:
          matchLabels:
            app: nginx
            tier: backend
      

      Next, add the pod template. You need to use the same labels that you added for the Deployment selector.matchLabels. Add the following:

      nginx_deployment.yaml

      ...
        template:
          metadata:
            labels:
              app: nginx
              tier: backend
      

      Give Nginx access to the code PVC that you created earlier. Under spec.template.spec.volumes, add:

      nginx_deployment.yaml

      ...
          spec:
            volumes:
            - name: code
              persistentVolumeClaim:
                claimName: code
      

      Pods can mount a ConfigMap as a volume. Specifying a file name and key will create a file with its value as the content. To use the ConfigMap, set path to name of the file that will hold the contents of the key. You want to create a file site.conf from the key config. Under spec.template.spec.volumes, add the following:

      nginx_deployment.yaml

      ...
            - name: config
              configMap:
                name: nginx-config
                items:
                - key: config
                  path: site.conf
      

      Warning: If a file is not specified, the contents of the key will replace the mountPath of the volume. This means that if a path is not explicitly specified, you will lose all content in the destination folder.

      Next, you will specify the image to create your pod from. This tutorial will use the nginx:1.7.9 image for stability, but you can find other Nginx images on the Docker store. Also, make Nginx available on the port 80. Under spec.template.spec add:

      nginx_deployment.yaml

      ...
            containers:
            - name: nginx
              image: nginx:1.7.9
              ports:
              - containerPort: 80
      

      Nginx and PHP-FPM need to access the file at the same path, so mount the code volume at /code:

      nginx_deployment.yaml

      ...
              volumeMounts:
              - name: code
                mountPath: /code
      

      The nginx:1.7.9 image will automatically load any configuration files under the /etc/nginx/conf.d directory. Mounting the config volume in this directory will create the file /etc/nginx/conf.d/site.conf. Under volumeMounts add the following:

      nginx_deployment.yaml

      ...
              - name: config
                mountPath: /etc/nginx/conf.d
      

      Your nginx_deployment.yaml file will look like this:

      nginx_deployment.yaml

      apiVersion: apps/v1
      kind: Deployment
      metadata:
        name: nginx
        labels:
          tier: backend
      spec:
        replicas: 1
        selector:
          matchLabels:
            app: nginx
            tier: backend
        template:
          metadata:
            labels:
              app: nginx
              tier: backend
          spec:
            volumes:
            - name: code
              persistentVolumeClaim:
                claimName: code
            - name: config
              configMap:
                name: nginx-config
                items:
                - key: config
                  path: site.conf
            containers:
            - name: nginx
              image: nginx:1.7.9
              ports:
              - containerPort: 80
              volumeMounts:
              - name: code
                mountPath: /code
              - name: config
                mountPath: /etc/nginx/conf.d
      

      Save the file and exit the editor.

      Create the Nginx Deployment:

      • kubectl apply -f nginx_deployment.yaml

      The following output indicates that your Deployment is now created:

      Output

      deployment.apps/nginx created

      List your Deployments with this command:

      You will see the Nginx and PHP-FPM Deployments:

      Output

      NAME DESIRED CURRENT UP-TO-DATE AVAILABLE AGE nginx 1 1 1 0 16s php 1 1 1 1 7m

      List the pods managed by both of the Deployments:

      You will see the pods that are running:

      Output

      NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE nginx-7bf5476b6f-zppml 1/1 Running 0 32s php-86d59fd666-lkwgn 1/1 Running 0 7m

      Now that all of the Kubernetes objects are active, you can visit the Nginx service on your browser.

      List the running services:

      • kubectl get services -o wide

      Get the External IP for your Nginx service:

      Output

      NAME TYPE CLUSTER-IP EXTERNAL-IP PORT(S) AGE SELECTOR kubernetes ClusterIP 10.96.0.1 <none> 443/TCP 39m <none> nginx ClusterIP 10.102.160.47 your_public_ip 80/TCP 27m app=nginx,tier=backend php ClusterIP 10.100.59.238 <none> 9000/TCP 34m app=php,tier=backend

      On your browser, visit your server by typing in http://your_public_ip. You will see the output of php_info() and have confirmed that your Kubernetes services are up and running.

      Conclusion

      In this guide, you containerized the PHP-FPM and Nginx services so that you can manage them independently. This approach will not only improve the scalability of your project as you grow, but will also allow you to efficiently use resources as well. You also stored your application code on a volume so that you can easily update your services in the future.



      Source link

      How To Install WordPress with LEMP (Nginx, MariaDB and PHP) on Debian 10


      Introduction

      WordPress is the most popular CMS (content management system) on the internet. It allows you to easily set up flexible blogs and websites on top of a MySQL-based backend with PHP processing. WordPress has seen incredible adoption and is a great choice for getting a website up and running quickly. After setup, almost all administration can be done through the web frontend.

      In this guide, we’ll focus on getting a WordPress instance set up on a LEMP stack (Linux, Nginx, MariaDB, and PHP) on a Debian 10 server.

      Prerequisites

      In order to complete this tutorial, you will need access to a Debian 10 server.

      You will need to perform the following tasks before you can start this guide:

      • Create a sudo user on your server: We will be completing the steps in this guide using a non-root user with sudo privileges. You can create a user with sudo privileges by following our Debian 10 initial server setup guide.
      • Install a LEMP stack: WordPress will need a web server, a database, and PHP in order to correctly function. Setting up a LEMP stack (Linux, Nginx, MariaDB, and PHP) fulfills all of these requirements. Follow this guide to install and configure this software.
      • Secure your site with SSL: WordPress serves dynamic content and handles user authentication and authorization. TLS/SSL is the technology that allows you to encrypt the traffic from your site so that your connection is secure. This tutorial will assume that you have a domain name for your blog. You can use Let’s Encrypt to get a free SSL certificate for your domain. Follow our Let’s Encrypt guide for Nginx to set this up.

      When you are finished with the setup steps, log into your server as your sudo user and continue below.

      Step 1 — Creating a Database and User for WordPress

      WordPress needs a MySQL-based database to store and manage site and user information. Our setup uses MariaDB, a community fork of the original MySQL project by Oracle. MariaDB is currently the default MySQL-compatible database server available on debian-based package manager repositories.

      To get started, log into the MariaDB root (administrative) account. If MariaDB is configured to use the auth_socket authentication plugin, which is the default, you can log into the MariaDB administrative account using sudo:

      If you changed the authentication method to use a password for the MariaDB root account, use the following format instead:

      You will be prompted for the password you set for the MariaDB root account.

      First, we can create a separate database that WordPress can control. You can name this whatever you would like, but we will be using wordpress in this guide to keep it simple. You can create the database for WordPress by typing:

      • CREATE DATABASE wordpress DEFAULT CHARACTER SET utf8 COLLATE utf8_unicode_ci;

      Next, we are going to create a separate MariaDB user account that we will use exclusively to operate on our new database. Creating one-function databases and accounts is a good idea from a management and security standpoint. We will use the name wordpress_user in this guide. Feel free to change this if you'd like.

      The following command will create this account, set a password, and grant access to the database we created. Remember to choose a strong password for your database user:

      • GRANT ALL ON wordpress.* TO 'wordpress_user'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'password';

      You now have a database and a user account, each made specifically for WordPress. We need to flush the privileges so that the current instance of the database server knows about the recent changes we've made:

      Exit out of MariaDB by typing:

      The MariaDB session will exit, returning you to the regular Linux shell.

      Step 2 — Installing Additional PHP Extensions

      When setting up our LEMP stack, we only required a very minimal set of extensions in order to get PHP to communicate with MariaDB. WordPress and many of its plugins leverage additional PHP extensions.

      We can download and install some of the most popular PHP extensions for use with WordPress by typing:

      • sudo apt update
      • sudo apt install php-curl php-gd php-intl php-mbstring php-soap php-xml php-xmlrpc php-zip

      Note: Each WordPress plugin has its own set of requirements. Some may require additional PHP packages to be installed. Check your plugin documentation to discover its PHP requirements.

      When you are finished installing the extensions, restart the PHP-FPM process so that the running PHP processor can leverage the newly installed features:

      • sudo systemctl restart php7.3-fpm.service

      We now have all of the necessary PHP extensions installed on the server.

      Step 3 — Configuring Nginx

      Next, we will be making a few minor adjustments to our Nginx server block files. Based on the prerequisite tutorials, you should have a configuration file for your site in the /etc/nginx/sites-available/ directory configured to respond to your server's domain name and protected by a TLS/SSL certificate. We'll use /etc/nginx/sites-available/your_domain as an example here, but you should substitute the path to your configuration file where appropriate.

      Additionally, we will use /var/www/your_domain as the root directory of our WordPress install. You should use the web root specified in your own configuration.

      Note: It's possible you are using the /etc/nginx/sites-available/default default configuration (with /var/www/html as your web root). This is fine to use if you're only going to host one website on this server. If not, it's best to split the necessary configuration into logical chunks, one file per site.

      Open your site's Nginx configuration file with sudo privileges to begin:

      • sudo nano /etc/nginx/sites-available/your_domain

      We need to add a few location directives within our main server block. After adding SSL certificates your config may have two server blocks. If so, find the one that contains root /var/www/your_domain and your other location directives and implement your changes there.

      Start by creating exact-matching location blocks for requests to /favicon.ico and /robots.txt, both of which we do not want to log requests for.

      We will use a regular expression location to match any requests for static files. We will again turn off the logging for these requests and will mark them as highly cacheable since these are typically expensive resources to serve. You can adjust this static files list to contain any other file extensions your site may use:

      /etc/nginx/sites-available/your_domain

      server {
          . . .
      
          location = /favicon.ico { log_not_found off; access_log off; }
          location = /robots.txt { log_not_found off; access_log off; allow all; }
          location ~* .(css|gif|ico|jpeg|jpg|js|png)$ {
              expires max;
              log_not_found off;
          }
          . . .
      }
      

      Inside of the existing location / block, we need to adjust the try_files list so that instead of returning a 404 error as the default option, control is passed to the index.php file with the request arguments.

      This should look something like this:

      /etc/nginx/sites-available/wordpress

      server {
          . . .
          location / {
              #try_files $uri $uri/ =404;
              try_files $uri $uri/ /index.php$is_args$args;
          }
          . . .
      }
      

      When you are finished, save and close the file.

      Now, we can check our configuration for syntax errors by typing:

      If no errors were reported, reload Nginx by typing:

      • sudo systemctl reload nginx

      Next, we will download and set up WordPress itself.

      Step 4 — Downloading WordPress

      Now that our server software is configured, we can download and set up WordPress. For security reasons in particular, it is always recommended to get the latest version of WordPress from their site.

      Change into a writable directory and then download the compressed release by typing:

      • cd /tmp
      • curl -LO https://wordpress.org/latest.tar.gz

      Extract the compressed file to create the WordPress directory structure:

      We will be moving these files into our document root momentarily. Before we do that, we can copy over the sample configuration file to the filename that WordPress actually reads:

      • cp /tmp/wordpress/wp-config-sample.php /tmp/wordpress/wp-config.php

      Now, we can copy the entire contents of the directory into our document root. We are using the -a flag to make sure our permissions are maintained. We are using a dot at the end of our source directory to indicate that everything within the directory should be copied, including any hidden files:

      • sudo cp -a /tmp/wordpress/. /var/www/your_domain

      Now that our files are in place, we'll assign ownership them to the www-data user and group. This is the user and group that Nginx runs as, and Nginx will need to be able to read and write WordPress files in order to serve the website and perform automatic updates.

      • sudo chown -R www-data:www-data /var/www/your_domain

      Our files are now in our server's document root and have the correct ownership, but we still need to complete some more configuration.

      Step 5 — Setting up the WordPress Configuration File

      Next, we need to make a few changes to the main WordPress configuration file.

      When we open the file, our first order of business will be to adjust the secret keys to provide some security for our installation. WordPress provides a secure generator for these values so that you do not have to try to come up with good values on your own. These are only used internally, so it won't hurt usability to have complex, secure values here.

      To grab secure values from the WordPress secret key generator, type:

      • curl -s https://api.wordpress.org/secret-key/1.1/salt/

      You will get back unique values that look something like this:

      Warning: It is important that you request unique values each time. Do NOT copy the values shown below!

      Output

      define('AUTH_KEY', '1jl/vqfs<XhdXoAPz9 DO NOT COPY THESE VALUES c_j{iwqD^<+c9.k<J@4H'); define('SECURE_AUTH_KEY', 'E2N-h2]Dcvp+aS/p7X DO NOT COPY THESE VALUES {Ka(f;rv?Pxf})CgLi-3'); define('LOGGED_IN_KEY', 'W(50,{W^,OPB%PB<JF DO NOT COPY THESE VALUES 2;y&,2m%3]R6DUth[;88'); define('NONCE_KEY', 'll,4UC)7ua+8<!4VM+ DO NOT COPY THESE VALUES #`DXF+[$atzM7 o^-C7g'); define('AUTH_SALT', 'koMrurzOA+|L_lG}kf DO NOT COPY THESE VALUES 07VC*Lj*lD&?3w!BT#-'); define('SECURE_AUTH_SALT', 'p32*p,]z%LZ+pAu:VY DO NOT COPY THESE VALUES C-?y+K0DK_+F|0h{!_xY'); define('LOGGED_IN_SALT', 'i^/G2W7!-1H2OQ+t$3 DO NOT COPY THESE VALUES t6**bRVFSD[Hi])-qS`|'); define('NONCE_SALT', 'Q6]U:K?j4L%Z]}h^q7 DO NOT COPY THESE VALUES 1% ^qUswWgn+6&xqHN&%');

      These are configuration lines that we can paste directly in our configuration file to set secure keys. Copy the output you received now.

      Now, open the WordPress configuration file:

      • nano /var/www/your_domain/wp-config.php

      Find the section that contains the dummy values for those settings. It will look something like this:

      /var/www/wordpress/wp-config.php

      . . .
      
      define('AUTH_KEY',         'put your unique phrase here');
      define('SECURE_AUTH_KEY',  'put your unique phrase here');
      define('LOGGED_IN_KEY',    'put your unique phrase here');
      define('NONCE_KEY',        'put your unique phrase here');
      define('AUTH_SALT',        'put your unique phrase here');
      define('SECURE_AUTH_SALT', 'put your unique phrase here');
      define('LOGGED_IN_SALT',   'put your unique phrase here');
      define('NONCE_SALT',       'put your unique phrase here');
      
      . . .
      

      Delete those lines and paste in the values you copied from the command line:

      /var/www/wordpress/wp-config.php

      . . .
      
      define('AUTH_KEY',         'VALUES COPIED FROM THE COMMAND LINE');
      define('SECURE_AUTH_KEY',  'VALUES COPIED FROM THE COMMAND LINE');
      define('LOGGED_IN_KEY',    'VALUES COPIED FROM THE COMMAND LINE');
      define('NONCE_KEY',        'VALUES COPIED FROM THE COMMAND LINE');
      define('AUTH_SALT',        'VALUES COPIED FROM THE COMMAND LINE');
      define('SECURE_AUTH_SALT', 'VALUES COPIED FROM THE COMMAND LINE');
      define('LOGGED_IN_SALT',   'VALUES COPIED FROM THE COMMAND LINE');
      define('NONCE_SALT',       'VALUES COPIED FROM THE COMMAND LINE');
      
      . . .
      

      Next, we need to modify some of the database connection settings at the beginning of the file. You need to adjust the database name, the database user, and the associated password that we configured within MariaDB.

      The other change we need to make is to set the method that WordPress should use to write to the filesystem. Since we've given the web server permission to write where it needs to, we can explicitly set the filesystem method to "direct". Failure to set this with our current settings would result in WordPress prompting for FTP credentials when we perform some actions. This setting can be added below the database connection settings, or anywhere else in the file:

      /var/www/wordpress/wp-config.php

      . . .
      
      define('DB_NAME', 'wordpress');
      
      /** MySQL database username */
      define('DB_USER', 'wordpress_user');
      
      /** MySQL database password */
      define('DB_PASSWORD', 'password');
      
      . . .
      
      define('FS_METHOD', 'direct');
      

      Save and close the file when you are finished.

      Step 6 — Completing the Installation Through the Web Interface

      Now that the server configuration is complete, we can finish up the installation through the web interface.

      In your web browser, navigate to your server's domain name or public IP address:

      http://server_domain_or_IP
      

      Select the language you would like to use:

      WordPress language selection

      Next, you will come to the main setup page.

      Select a name for your WordPress site and choose a username (it is recommended not to choose something like "admin" for security purposes). A strong password is generated automatically. Save this password or select an alternative strong password.

      Enter your email address and select whether you want to discourage search engines from indexing your site:

      WordPress setup installation

      When you click ahead, you will be taken to a page that prompts you to log in:

      WordPress login prompt

      Once you log in, you will be taken to the WordPress administration dashboard:

      WordPress admin panel

      Conclusion

      WordPress should be installed and ready to use! Some common next steps are to choose the permalinks setting for your posts (can be found in Settings > Permalinks) or to select a new theme (in Appearance > Themes). If this is your first time using WordPress, explore the interface a bit to get acquainted with your new CMS, or check the First Steps with WordPress guide on their official documentation.



      Source link

      How To Install Linux, Apache, MariaDB, PHP (LAMP) stack on Debian 10


      Introduction

      A “LAMP” stack is a group of open-source software that is typically installed together to enable a server to host dynamic websites and web apps. This term is actually an acronym which represents the Linux operating system, with the Apache web server. The site data is stored in a MariaDB database, and dynamic content is processed by PHP.

      Although this software stack typically includes MySQL as the database management system, some Linux distributions — including Debian — use MariaDB as a drop-in replacement for MySQL.

      In this guide, we will install a LAMP stack on a Debian 10 server, using MariaDB as the database management system.

      Prerequisites

      In order to complete this tutorial, you will need to have a Debian 10 server with a non-root sudo-enabled user account and a basic firewall. This can be configured using our initial server setup guide for Debian 10.

      Step 1 — Installing Apache and Updating the Firewall

      The Apache web server is among the most popular web servers in the world. It’s well-documented and has been in wide use for much of the history of the web, which makes it a great default choice for hosting a website.

      Install Apache using Debian’s package manager, APT:

      • sudo apt update
      • sudo apt install apache2

      Since this is a sudo command, these operations are executed with root privileges. It will ask you for your regular user’s password to verify your intentions.

      Once you’ve entered your password, apt will tell you which packages it plans to install and how much extra disk space they’ll take up. Press Y and hit ENTER to continue, and the installation will proceed.

      Next, assuming that you have followed the initial server setup instructions by installing and enabling the UFW firewall, make sure that your firewall allows HTTP and HTTPS traffic.

      When installed on Debian 10, UFW comes loaded with app profiles which you can use to tweak your firewall settings. View the full list of application profiles by running:

      The WWW profiles are used to manage ports used by web servers:

      Output

      Available applications: . . . WWW WWW Cache WWW Full WWW Secure . . .

      If you inspect the WWW Full profile, it shows that it enables traffic to ports 80 and 443:

      • sudo ufw app info "WWW Full"

      Output

      Profile: WWW Full Title: Web Server (HTTP,HTTPS) Description: Web Server (HTTP,HTTPS) Ports: 80,443/tcp

      Allow incoming HTTP and HTTPS traffic for this profile:

      • sudo ufw allow in "WWW Full"

      You can do a spot check right away to verify that everything went as planned by visiting your server's public IP address in your web browser:

      http://your_server_ip
      

      You will see the default Debian 10 Apache web page, which is there for informational and testing purposes. It should look something like this:

      Debian 10 Apache default

      If you see this page, then your web server is now correctly installed and accessible through your firewall.

      If you do not know what your server's public IP address is, there are a number of ways you can find it. Usually, this is the address you use to connect to your server through SSH.

      There are a few different ways to do this from the command line. First, you could use the iproute2 tools to get your IP address by typing this:

      • ip addr show eth0 | grep inet | awk '{ print $2; }' | sed 's//.*$//'

      This will give you two or three lines back. They are all correct addresses, but your computer may only be able to use one of them, so feel free to try each one.

      An alternative method is to use the curl utility to contact an outside party to tell you how it sees your server. This is done by asking a specific server what your IP address is:

      • sudo apt install curl
      • curl http://icanhazip.com

      Regardless of the method you use to get your IP address, type it into your web browser's address bar to view the default Apache page.

      Step 2 — Installing MariaDB

      Now that you have a web server up and running, you need to install the database system to be able to store and manage data for your site.

      In Debian 10, the metapackage mysql-server, which was traditionally used to install the MySQL server, was replaced by default-mysql-server. This metapackage references MariaDB, a community fork of the original MySQL server by Oracle, and it's currently the default MySQL-compatible database server available on debian-based package manager repositories.

      For longer term compatibility, however, it’s recommended that instead of using the metapackage you install MariaDB using the program’s actual package, mariadb-server.

      To install this software, run:

      • sudo apt install mariadb-server

      When the installation is finished, it's recommended that you run a security script that comes pre-installed with MariaDB. This script will remove some insecure default settings and lock down access to your database system. Start the interactive script by running:

      • sudo mysql_secure_installation

      This script will take you through a series of prompts where you can make some changes to your MariaDB setup. The first prompt will ask you to enter the current database root password. This is not to be confused with the system root. The database root user is an administrative user with full privileges over the database system. Because you just installed MariaDB and haven’t made any configuration changes yet, this password will be blank, so just press ENTER at the prompt.

      The next prompt asks you whether you'd like to set up a database root password. Because MariaDB uses a special authentication method for the root user that is typically safer than using a password, you don't need to set this now. Type N and then press ENTER.

      From there, you can press Y and then ENTER to accept the defaults for all the subsequent questions. This will remove anonymous users and the test database, disable remote root login, and load these new rules so that MariaDB immediately respects the changes you have made.
      When you're finished, log in to the MariaDB console by typing:

      This will connect to the MariaDB server as the administrative database user root, which is inferred by the use of sudo when running this command. You should see output like this:

      Output

      Welcome to the MariaDB monitor. Commands end with ; or g. Your MariaDB connection id is 74 Server version: 10.3.15-MariaDB-1 Debian 10 Copyright (c) 2000, 2018, Oracle, MariaDB Corporation Ab and others. Type 'help;' or 'h' for help. Type 'c' to clear the current input statement. MariaDB [(none)]>

      Notice that you didn't need to provide a password to connect as the root user. That works because the default authentication method for the administrative MariaDB user is unix_socket instead of password. Even though this might look like a security concern at first, it makes the database server more secure because the only users allowed to log in as the root MariaDB user are the system users with sudo privileges connecting from the console or through an application running with the same privileges. In practical terms, that means you won't be able to use the administrative database root user to connect from your PHP application.

      For increased security, it's best to have dedicated user accounts with less expansive privileges set up for every database, especially if you plan on having multiple databases hosted on your server. To demonstrate such a setup, we'll create a database named example_database and a user named example_user, but you can replace these names with different values.
      To create a new database, run the following command from your MariaDB console:

      • CREATE DATABASE example_database;

      Now you can create a new user and grant them full privileges on the custom database you've just created. The following command defines this user's password as password, but you should replace this value with a secure password of your own choosing.

      • GRANT ALL ON example_database.* TO 'example_user'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'password' WITH GRANT OPTION;

      This will give the example_user user full privileges over the example_database database, while preventing this user from creating or modifying other databases on your server.

      Flush the privileges to ensure that they are saved and available in the current session:

      Following this, exit the MariaDB shell:

      You can test if the new user has the proper permissions by logging in to the MariaDB console again, this time using the custom user credentials:

      • mariadb -u example_user -p

      Note the -p flag in this command, which will prompt you for the password used when creating the example_user user. After logging in to the MariaDB console, confirm that you have access to the example_database database:

      This will give you the following output:

      Output

      +--------------------+ | Database | +--------------------+ | example_database | | information_schema | +--------------------+ 2 rows in set (0.000 sec)

      To exit the MariaDB shell, type:

      At this point, your database system is set up and you can move on to installing PHP, the final component of the LAMP stack.

      Step 3 — Installing PHP

      PHP is the component of your setup that will process code to display dynamic content. It can run scripts, connect to your MariaDB databases to get information, and hand the processed content over to your web server to display.

      Once again, leverage the apt system to install PHP. In addition, include some helper packages which will ensure that PHP code can run under the Apache server and talk to your MariaDB database:

      • sudo apt install php libapache2-mod-php php-mysql

      This should install PHP without any problems. We'll test this in a moment.

      In most cases, you will want to modify the way that Apache serves files. Currently, if a user requests a directory from the server, Apache will first look for a file called index.html. We want to tell the web server to prefer PHP files over others, so make Apache look for an index.php file first.

      To do this, type the following command to open the dir.conf file in a text editor with root privileges:

      • sudo nano /etc/apache2/mods-enabled/dir.conf

      It will look like this:

      /etc/apache2/mods-enabled/dir.conf

      <IfModule mod_dir.c>
          DirectoryIndex index.html index.cgi index.pl index.php index.xhtml index.htm
      </IfModule>
      

      Move the PHP index file (highlighted above) to the first position after the DirectoryIndex specification, like this:

      /etc/apache2/mods-enabled/dir.conf

      <IfModule mod_dir.c>
          DirectoryIndex index.php index.html index.cgi index.pl index.xhtml index.htm
      </IfModule>
      

      When you are finished, save and close the file. If you're using nano, you can do that by pressing CTRL+X, then Y and ENTER to confirm.

      Now reload Apache's configuration with:

      • sudo systemctl reload apache2

      You can check on the status of the apache2 service with systemctl status:

      • sudo systemctl status apache2

      Sample Output

      ● apache2.service - The Apache HTTP Server Loaded: loaded (/lib/systemd/system/apache2.service; enabled; vendor preset: enabled) Active: active (running) since Mon 2019-07-08 12:58:31 UTC; 8s ago Docs: https://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.4/ Process: 11948 ExecStart=/usr/sbin/apachectl start (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS) Main PID: 11954 (apache2) Tasks: 6 (limit: 4719) Memory: 11.5M CGroup: /system.slice/apache2.service ├─11954 /usr/sbin/apache2 -k start ├─11955 /usr/sbin/apache2 -k start ├─11956 /usr/sbin/apache2 -k start ├─11957 /usr/sbin/apache2 -k start ├─11958 /usr/sbin/apache2 -k start └─11959 /usr/sbin/apache2 -k start

      At this point, your LAMP stack is fully operational, but before you can test your setup with a PHP script it's best to set up a proper Apache Virtual Host to hold your website's files and folders. We'll do that in the next step.

      Step 4 — Creating a Virtual Host for your Website

      By default, Apache serves its content from a directory located at /var/www/html, using the configuration contained in /etc/apache2/sites-available/000-default.conf. Instead of modifying the default website configuration file, we are going to create a new virtual host for testing your PHP environment. Virtual hosts enable us to keep multiple websites hosted on a single Apache server.

      Following that, you'll create a directory structure within /var/www for an example website named your_domain.

      Create the root web directory for your_domain as follows:

      • sudo mkdir /var/www/your_domain

      Next, assign ownership of the directory with the $USER environment variable, which should reference your current system user:

      • sudo chown -R $USER:$USER /var/www/your_domain

      Then, open a new configuration file in Apache's sites-available directory using your preferred command-line editor. Here, we'll use nano:

      • sudo nano /etc/apache2/sites-available/your_domain.conf

      This will create a new blank file. Paste in the following bare-bones configuration:

      /etc/apache2/sites-available/your_domain

      <VirtualHost *:80>
          ServerName your_domain
          ServerAlias www.your_domain 
          ServerAdmin webmaster@localhost
          DocumentRoot /var/www/your_domain
          ErrorLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/error.log
          CustomLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/access.log combined
      </VirtualHost>
      

      With this VirtualHost configuration, we're telling Apache to serve your_domain using /var/www/your_domain as the web root directory. If you'd like to test Apache without a domain name, you can remove or comment out the options ServerName and ServerAlias by adding a # character in the beginning of each option's lines.

      You can now use a2ensite to enable this virtual host:

      • sudo a2ensite your_domain

      You might want to disable the default website that comes installed with Apache. This is required if you're not using a custom domain name, because in this case Apache's default configuration would overwrite your Virtual Host. To disable Apache's default website, type:

      • sudo a2dissite 000-default

      To make sure your configuration file doesn't contain syntax errors, you can run:

      • sudo apache2ctl configtest

      Finally, reload Apache so these changes take effect:

      • sudo systemctl reload apache2

      Your new website is now active, but the web root /var/www/your_domain is still empty. In the next step, we'll create a PHP script to test the new setup and confirm that PHP is correctly installed and configured on your server.

      Step 5 — Testing PHP Processing on your Web Server

      Now that you have a custom location to host your website's files and folders, we'll create a simple PHP test script to confirm that Apache is able to handle and process requests for PHP files.

      Create a new file named info.php inside your custom web root folder:

      • nano /var/www/your_domain/info.php

      This will open a blank file. Add the following text, which is valid PHP code, inside the file:

      /var/www/your_domain/info.php

      <?php
      phpinfo();
      

      When you are finished, save and close the file.

      Now you can test whether your web server is able to correctly display content generated by this PHP script. To try this out, visit this page in your web browser. You'll need your server's public IP address again.

      The address you will want to visit is:

      http://your_domain/info.php
      

      You should see a page similar to this:

      Debian 10 default PHP info

      This page provides some basic information about your server from the perspective of PHP. It is useful for debugging and to ensure that your settings are being applied correctly.

      If you can see this page in your browser, then your PHP installation is working as expected.

      After checking the relevant information about your PHP server through that page, it's best to remove the file you created as it contains sensitive information about your PHP environment and your Debian server. You can use rm to do so:

      • sudo rm /var/www/your_domain/info.php

      You can always recreate this page if you need to access the information again later.

      Step 6 — Testing Database Connection from PHP (Optional)

      If you want to test whether PHP is able to connect to MariaDB and execute database queries, you can create a test table with dummy data and query for its contents from a PHP script.

      First, connect to the MariaDB console with the database user you created in Step 2 of this guide:

      • mariadb -u example_user -p

      Create a table named todo_list. From the MariaDB console, run the following statement:

      • CREATE TABLE example_database.todo_list (
      • item_id INT AUTO_INCREMENT,
      • content VARCHAR(255),
      • PRIMARY KEY(item_id)
      • );

      Now, insert a few rows of content in the test table. You might want to repeat the next command a few times, using different values:

      • INSERT INTO example_database.todo_list (content) VALUES ("My first important item");

      To confirm that the data was successfully saved to your table, run:

      • SELECT * FROM example_database.todo_list;

      You will see the following output:

      Output

      +---------+--------------------------+ | item_id | content | +---------+--------------------------+ | 1 | My first important item | | 2 | My second important item | | 3 | My third important item | | 4 | and this one more thing | +---------+--------------------------+ 4 rows in set (0.000 sec)

      After confirming that you have valid data in your test table, you can exit the MariaDB console:

      Now you can create the PHP script that will connect to MariaDB and query for your content. Create a new PHP file in your custom web root directory using your preferred editor. We'll use nano for that:

      • nano /var/www/your_domain/todo_list.php

      The following PHP script connects to the MariaDB database and queries for the content of the todo_list table, exhibiting the results in a list. If there's a problem with the database connection, it will throw an exception.
      Copy this content into your todo_list.php script:

      /var/www/your_domain/todo_list.php

      <?php
      $user = "example_user";
      $password = "password";
      $database = "example_database";
      $table = "todo_list";
      
      try {
        $db = new PDO("mysql:host=localhost;dbname=$database", $user, $password);
        echo "<h2>TODO</h2><ol>"; 
        foreach($db->query("SELECT content FROM $table") as $row) {
          echo "<li>" . $row['content'] . "</li>";
        }
        echo "</ol>";
      } catch (PDOException $e) {
          print "Error!: " . $e->getMessage() . "<br/>";
          die();
      }
      

      Save and close the file when you're done editing.

      You can now access this page in your web browser by visiting the domain name or public IP address for your website, followed by /todo_list.php:

      http://your_domain/todo_list.php
      

      You should see a page like this, showing the content you've inserted in your test table:

      Example PHP todo list

      That means your PHP environment is ready to connect and interact with your MariaDB server.

      Conclusion

      In this guide, we've built a flexible foundation for serving PHP websites and applications to your visitors, using Apache as web server and MariaDB as database system.

      To further improve your current setup, you can install an OpenSSL certificate for your website using Let's Encrypt.



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