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      How To Install Ruby on Rails with rbenv on Ubuntu 18.04


      Introduction

      Ruby on Rails is one of the most popular application stacks for developers looking to create sites and web apps. The Ruby programming language, combined with the Rails development framework, makes app development simple.

      You can easily install Ruby and Rails with the command-line tool rbenv. Using rbenv will provide you with a solid environment for developing your Ruby on Rails applications as it will let you easily switch Ruby versions, keeping your entire team on the same version.

      rbenv provides support for specifying application-specific versions of Ruby, lets you change the global Ruby for each user, and allows you to use an environment variable to override the Ruby version.

      This tutorial will take you through the Ruby and Rails installation process via rbenv.

      Prerequisites

      To follow this tutorial, you need:

      Step 1 – Install rbenv and Dependencies

      Ruby relies on several packages which you can install through your package manager. Once those are installed, you can install rbenv and use it to install Ruby,

      First, update your package list:

      Next, install the dependencies required to install Ruby:

      • sudo apt install autoconf bison build-essential libssl-dev libyaml-dev libreadline6-dev zlib1g-dev libncurses5-dev libffi-dev libgdbm5 libgdbm-dev

      Once the dependencies download, you can install rbenv itself. Clone the rbenv repository from GitHub into the directory ~/.rbenv:

      • git clone https://github.com/rbenv/rbenv.git ~/.rbenv

      Next, add ~/.rbenv/bin to your $PATH so that you can use the rbenv command line utility. Do this by altering your ~/.bashrc file so that it affects future login sessions:

      • echo 'export PATH="$HOME/.rbenv/bin:$PATH"' >> ~/.bashrc

      Then add the command ~/.rbenv/bin/rbenv init to your ~/.basrc file so rbenv loads automatically:

      • echo 'eval "$(rbenv init -)"' >> ~/.bashrc

      Next, apply the changes you made to your ~/.bashrc file to your current shell session:

      Verify that rbenv is set up properly by using the type command, which will display more information about the rbenv command:

      Your terminal window will display the following:

      Output

      rbenv is a function rbenv () { local command; command="${1:-}"; if [ "$#" -gt 0 ]; then shift; fi; case "$command" in rehash | shell) eval "$(rbenv "sh-$command" "$@")" ;; *) command rbenv "$command" "$@" ;; esac }

      Next, install the ruby-build, plugin. This plugin adds therbenv install command, which simplifies the installation process for new versions of Ruby:

      • git clone https://github.com/rbenv/ruby-build.git ~/.rbenv/plugins/ruby-build

      At this point, you have both rbenv and ruby-build installed. Let's install Ruby next.

      Step 2 – Installing Ruby with ruby-build

      With the ruby-build plugin now installed, you can install versions of Ruby y may need through a simple command. First, let's list all the available versions of Ruby:

      The output of that command should be a long list of versions that you can choose to install.

      Let's install Ruby 2.5.1:

      Installing Ruby can be a lengthy process, so be prepared for the installation to take some time to complete.

      Once it's done installing, set it asy our default version of Ruby with the global sub-command:

      Verify that Ruby was properly installed by checking its version number:

      If you installed version 2.5.1 of Ruby, your output to the above command should look something like this:

      Output

      ruby 2.5.1p57 (2018-03-29 revision 63029) [x86_64-linux]

      To install and use a different version of Ruby, run the rbenv commands with a different version number, as in rbenv install 2.3.0 and rbenv global 2.3.0.

      You now have at least one version of Ruby installed and have set your default Ruby version. Next, we will set up gems and Rails.

      Step 3 – Working with Gems

      Gems are the way Ruby libraries are distributed. You use the gem command to manage these gems. We'll use this command to install Rails.

      When you install a gem, the installation process generates local documentation. This can add a significant amount of time to each gem's installation process, so turn off local documentation generation by creating a file called ~/.gemrc which contains a configuration setting to turn off this feature:

      • echo "gem: --no-document" > ~/.gemrc

      Bundler is a tool that manages gem dependencies for projects. Install the Bundler gem next. as Rails depends on it.

      You'll see output like this:

      Output

      Fetching: bundler-1.16.2.gem (100%) Successfully installed bundler-1.16.2 1 gem installed

      You can use the gem env command (the subcommand env is short for environment) to learn more about the environment and configuration of gems. You can see where gems are being installed by using the home argument, like this:

      You'll see output similar to this:

      /home/sammy/.rbenv/versions/2.5.1/lib/ruby/gems/2.5.0
      

      Once you have gems set up, you can install Rails.

      Step 4 – Installing Rails

      To install the most recent version of Rails, use the gem install command:

      The gem command installs the gem you specify, as well as every dependency. Rails is a complex web development framework and has many dependencies, so the process will take some time to complete. Eventually you'll see a message stating that Rails is installed. along with its dependencies:

      Output

      ... Successfully installed rails-5.2.0 38 gems installed

      Note: If you would like to install a specific version of Rails, you can list the valid versions of Rails by doing a search, which will output a long list of possible versions. We can then install a specific version, such as 4.2.7:

      • gem search '^rails$' --all
      • gem install rails -v 4.2.7

      rbenv works by creating a directory of shims, which point to the files used by the Ruby version that's currently enabled. Through the rehash sub-command, rbenv maintains shims in that directory to match every Ruby command across every installed version of Ruby on your server. Whenever you install a new version of Ruby or a gem that provides commands, like Rails does, you should run:

      Verify that Rails has been installed properly by printing its version, with this command:

      If it installed properly, you will see the version of Rails that was installed:

      Output

      Rails 5.2.0

      At this point, you can begin testing your Ruby on Rails installation and start to develop web applications. Let's look at keeping rbenv up to date.

      Step 5 – Updating rbenv

      Since you installed rbenv manually using Git, you can upgrade your installation to the most recent version at any time by using the git pull command in the ~/.rbenv directory:

      This will ensure that we are using the most up-to-date version of rbenv available.

      Step 6 – Uninstalling Ruby versions

      As you download additional versions of Ruby, you may accumulate more versions than you would like in your ~/.rbenv/versions directory. Use the ruby-buildplugin 's' uninstall subcommand to remove these previous versions.

      For example, typing this will uninstall Ruby version 2.1.3:

      With the rbenv uninstall command you can clean up old versions of Ruby so that you do not have more installed than you are currently using.

      Step 7 – Uninstalling rbenv

      If you've decided you no longer want to use rbenv, you can remove it from your system.

      To do this, first open your ~/.bashrc file in your editor:

      Find and remove the following two lines from the file:

      ~/.bashrc

      ...
      export PATH="$HOME/.rbenv/bin:$PATH"
      eval "$(rbenv init -)"
      

      Save the file and exit the editor.

      Then remove rbenv and all installed Ruby versions with this command:

       rm -rf `rbenv root`
      

      Log out and back in to apply the changes to your shell.

      Conclusion

      In this tutorial you installed rbenv and Ruby on Rails. From here, you can learn more about making those environments more robust.

      Explore how to use Ruby on Rails with PostgreSQL or MySQL rather than its default sqlite3 database, which provide more scalability, centralization, and stability for your applications. As your needs grow, you can also learn how to scale Ruby on Rails applications across multiple servers.



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      How To Install Ruby on Rails with RVM on Ubuntu 18.04


      Introduction

      A popular web application framework, Ruby on Rails was designed to help you develop successful projects while writing less code. With an aim to making web development fun and supported by a robust community, Ruby on Rails is open-source software that is free to use and welcomes contributions to make it better.

      The command-line tool RVM (Ruby Version Manager) provides you with a solid development environment. RVM will let you manage and work with multiple Ruby environments and allow you to switch between them. The project repository is located in a git repository.

      This tutorial will take you through the Ruby and Rails installation process and set up via RVM

      Prerequisites

      This tutorial will take you through the Ruby on Rails installation process via RVM. To follow this tutorial, you need a non-root user with sudo privileges on an Ubuntu 18.04 server.

      To learn how to achieve this setup, follow our manual initial server setup guide or run our automated script.

      Installation

      The quickest way of installing Ruby on Rails with RVM is to run the following commands.

      We first need to update GPG, which stands for GNU Privacy Guard, to the most recent version in order to contact a public key server and request a key associated with the given ID.

      We are using a user with sudo privileges to update here, but the rest of the commands can be done by a regular user.

      Now, we’ll be requesting the RVM project’s key to sign each RVM release. Having the RVM project’s public key allows us to verify the legitimacy of the RVM release we will be downloading, which is signed with the matching private key.

      • gpg2 --keyserver hkp://keys.gnupg.net --recv-keys 409B6B1796C275462A1703113804BB82D39DC0E3 7D2BAF1CF37B13E2069D6956105BD0E739499BDB

      Let’s now move into a writable location such as the /tmp directory and then download the RVM script into a file:

      We'll use the curl command to download the RVM installation script from the project's website. The backslash that leads the command ensures that we are using the regular curl command and not any altered, aliased version.

      We will append the -s flag to indicate that the utility should operate in silent mode along with the -S flag to override some of this to allow curl to output errors if it fails. The -L flag tells the utility to follow redirects, and finally the -o flag indicates to write output to a file instead of standard output.

      Putting all of these elements together, our full command will look like this:

      • curl -sSL https://get.rvm.io -o rvm.sh

      Once it is downloaded, if you would like to audit the contents of the script before applying it, run:

      Then we can pipe it to bash to install the latest stable Rails version which will also pull in the associated latest stable release of Ruby.

      • cat /tmp/rvm.sh | bash -s stable --rails

      During the installation process, you may be prompted for your regular user’s password. When the installation is complete, source the RVM scripts from the directory they were installed, which will typically be in your home/username directory.

      • source /home/sammy/.rvm/scripts/rvm

      You should now have a full Ruby on Rails environment configured.

      Installing Specific Ruby and Rails Versions

      If you need to install a specific version of Ruby for your application, rather than just the most recent one, you can do so with RVM. First, check to see which versions of Ruby are available by listing them:

      Then, install the specific version of Ruby that you need through RVM, where ruby_version can be typed as ruby-2.4.0, for instance, or just 2.4.0:

      After the installation, we can list the available Ruby versions we have installed by typing:

      We can switch between the Ruby versions by typing:

      Since Rails is a gem, we can also install various versions of Rails by using the gem command. Let’s first list the valid versions of Rails by doing a search:

      • gem search '^rails$' --all

      Next, we can install our required version of Rails. Note that rails_version will only refer to the version number, as in 5.1.6.

      • gem install rails -v rails_version

      We can use various Rails versions with each Ruby by creating gemsets and then installing Rails within those using the normal gem commands.

      To create a gemset we will use:

      • rvm gemset create gemset_name

      To specify a Ruby version to use when creating a gemset, use:

      • rvm ruby_version@gemset_name --create

      The gemsets allow us to have self-contained environments for gems as well as have multiple environments for each version of Ruby that we install.

      Install JavaScript Runtime

      A few Rails features, such as the Asset Pipeline, depend on a JavaScript Runtime. We will install Node.js with the package manager apt to provide this functionality.

      Like we did with the RVM script, we can move to a writable directory, verify the Node.js script by outputting it to a file, then read it with less:

      • cd /tmp
      • curl -sSL https://deb.nodesource.com/setup_10.x -o nodejs.sh
      • less nodejs.sh

      Once we are satisfied with the Node.js script, we can install the NodeSource Node.js v10.x repo:

      • cat /tmp/nodejs.sh | sudo -E bash -

      The -E flag used here will preserve the user's existing environment variables.

      Now we can update apt and use it to install Node.js:

      • sudo apt update
      • sudo apt install -y nodejs

      At this point, you can begin testing your Ruby on Rails installation and start to develop web applications.

      How To Uninstall RVM

      If you no longer wish to use RVM, you can uninstall it by first removing the script calls in your .bashrc file and then removing the RVM files.

      First, remove the script calls with a text editor like nano:

      Scroll down to where you see the RVM lines of your file:

      ~/.bashrc

      ...
      # Add RVM to PATH for scripting. Make sure this is the last PATH variable change.
      export PATH="$PATH:$HOME/.rvm/bin"
      

      Delete the lines, then save and close the file.

      Next, remove RVM with the following command:

      At this point, you no longer have an

      Conclusion

      We have covered the basics of how to install RVM and Ruby on Rails here so that you can use multiple Ruby environments.

      For your next steps, you can learn more about working with RVM and how to use RVM to manage your Ruby installations.

      If you’re new to Ruby, you can learn about programming in Ruby by following our How To Code in Ruby tutorial series.

      For more scalability, centralization, and control in your Ruby on Rails application, you may want to use it with PostgreSQL or MySQL rather than its default sqlite3 database. As your needs grow, you can also learn how to scale Ruby on Rails applications across multiple servers.



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