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      Security Controls for User Accounts

      , by Linode

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      Create a Linode account
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      This credit will be applied to any valid services used during your first 60 days.

      To protect your Linode user account against unauthorized access, there are several security controls you can implement. This guide covers several of these controls, including 2FA, security questions, and phone verification.

      2FA (Two-Factor Authentication)

      2FA (two-factor authentication) increases the security of your Linode account by requiring two forms of authentication: your password and an expiring token, also called an OTP (one-time passcode) or 2FA code. This follows the security principle of authenticating with something you know (a password) and something you have (the device used to generate the token). This additional layer of security reduces the risk that an unauthorized individual can gain access to your Linode account. Linode highly recommends enabling 2FA. See
      Managing Two-Factor Authentication (2FA) on a User Account
      to learn how to enable 2FA. To assist with account lockouts and recovery, you must first configure three
      security questions
      on your account before enabling 2FA.


      Managing 2FA through Linode is only available if Linode is selected as the Login Method. If you select a third-party authentication provider (such as Google or GitHub), 2FA is managed directly through that provider and not through Linode.

      Security Questions

      You can configure three security questions on your user account. Security questions provide our team with a secure method of verifying your identity as the owner of the user account. They can be used to help you regain access to your account in certain situations, such as when TFA is enabled and you no longer have access to the token or recovery codes. When configuring a security question, answers should not be easily guessed or discoverable through research.

      Configuring Security Questions.

      1. Log in to the
        Cloud Manager
        and navigate to the
        Login & Authentication
        page of your user profile. To do this, click on your username in the top right of the Cloud Manager and select Login & Authentication from the dropdown menu.

      2. Scroll down to Security Questions under the Security Settings section. Here, you can view the security questions available to you or, if you’ve already configured them, see the questions you have selected.

      3. To configure your security questions, click the drop-down field under Question 1 to select the question you wish to use. Then, type the answer in the corresponding box.

      4. Repeat this for Question 2 and Question 3. Once a particular question has been selected, you are not able to select the same one for any other question field.

      5. Once all fields have been configured, click Add Security Questions. You must fill out all 3 questions when adding security questions for the first time.

      6. After a security question has been configured, you can edit one or more questions by clicking the Edit button next to each question you’d like to change, updating the answer field with your new answer, and then clicking the Update Security Questions button.

      Phone Verification

      A verified phone number provides our team with a secure method of verifying access to your Linode user account. It is required for all new accounts created on or after June 27th, 2022, though any existing user can add a verified phone number to increase the security on their account.

      This phone number is only ever used to verify your identity when attempting to authenticate to a user account when contacting Linode Support. An SMS message with a verification code is sent to that phone number. Once received, you can provide that verification code to the Support representative you are in contact with. If you receive a verification SMS without contacting us, do not pass along the verification code to anyone.


      Standard carrier messaging fees apply for each SMS message

      Adding a Verified Phone Number

      1. Log in to the
        Cloud Manager
        and navigate to the
        Login & Authentication
        page of your user profile. To do this, click on your username in the top right of the Cloud Manager and select Login & Authentication from the dropdown menu.

      2. Scroll down to Phone Verification under the Security Settings section. Here, you can view, add, and remove your verified phone number.

      3. To add a phone number, select your country from the dropdown list. This populates the country code portion of the phone number. Then enter the remainder of your phone number.

      4. Click Verify Phone Number to send an SMS verification code.

      5. Once you receive the verification code on your phone, enter it within the Verification Code field. If you do not receive the code within a few minutes, you can click the Resend verification code button.

      6. After successfully entering the verification code, your phone number is verified and has been saved to your user account.

      Multiple User Accounts

      Organizations that require multiple individuals to access the same customer account should create separate user accounts for each individual. Once you’ve created the accounts, you can assign permissions to restrict access to certain Linode services and areas of the Cloud Manager. This is useful for providing all team members access to a single Linode account, allowing a billing department to view invoices and billing details, or granting access to outside developers. For more information, see our guide on
      Accounts and Passwords

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      Application Security Testing Tools

      Application security testing tools help you build applications that are less vulnerable to attacks by automating security testing, and by verifying your applications are secured against known vulnerabilities.

      In this guide, you learn what application security testing is; why you need application security tools; what types of tools exist; and what best practices your organization can use in deploying them.

      What Is Application Security Testing?

      Application Security Testing (AST) is the process of making code more resistant to attack by verifying the absence of known vulnerabilities. Applying security testing practices to all areas of your application’s stack and software development life-cycle can decrease the risk of an incident. Security testing began with manual source code reviews, but that’s no longer feasible in most cases.

      Automated testing with AST tools is a necessity today, for several reasons. These include the complexity of applications, especially web-based and mobile software; the frequent use of third-party components; time-to-market pressures; and the seemingly infinite universe of known attacks.

      The Importance of Security Testing

      You can never completely eliminate risk for your application, but you can use AST tools to greatly reduce that risk. It’s much less difficult and less expensive to detect and fix security flaws early in the development cycle than it is in production.

      Security testing tools also keep you current because they’re regularly updated to check for the latest known vulnerabilities. This is especially important considering that
      2021 saw a record number of zero-day vulnerabilities

      Compared with time consuming code reviews and conventional unit and system test, AST tools provide much more speed and convenience. AST tools also classify and triage test results, helping you quickly identify the most serious vulnerabilities.

      Because they automate testing, software security tools scale well, and ensure repeatable results. AST tools also extend the breadth of security coverage by checking for new classes of vulnerabilities you previously might not have considered. Depending on your industry, there may be cases where you must perform security testing for regulatory and compliance reasons. And perhaps most important of all, AST tools help you think the way attackers do.

      Unlike source code reviews, AST tools work at every stage of an application’s lifecycle. This extends security testing throughout your organization, regardless of whether you’re on a development, devops, or IT management team.

      Types of Application Security Testing

      Static Application Security Testing

      Static application security testing (SAST) tools examine code to detect possible vulnerabilities. SAST tools are a form of white-box testing. In the white-box model, a test tool has access to all aspects of an application’s structure, including its architecture and source code. Armed with this inside knowledge, SAST tools can spot design flaws, identify logic problems, and verify code correctness. These tools optionally may perform negative testing as well, offering illegal values to test input validation and exception handling.

      SAST tools run automated scanning of source code, byte code, or compiled binaries, or some combination of these. The central tenet of all SAST tools is that they examine code at rest. Because SAST tools use a white-box model, they can analyze virtually any aspect of software, including individual functions, classes, and entire applications.

      Most AST tools, including SAST products, compare code against libraries of known vulnerabilities such as the
      Common Vulnerability and Exposures (CVE) list
      . A SAST tool that checks for vulnerabilities in this way might search for coding errors that could lead to privilege escalation, memory leaks, buffer overflows, and other faults.

      Example SAST products include
      AppScan Source
      Checkmarx SAST
      Coverity SAST
      , and the open-source

      Dynamic Application Security Testing

      Dynamic application security testing (DAST) tools examine applications while they’re running. In contrast to SAST tools, DAST takes a “black-box” approach, where the test tool has no visibility into application architecture or coding. Instead, DAST tools must discover vulnerabilities through externally observable means.

      One popular technique employed by DAST tools is the use of fuzzing. This is the practice of deliberately providing software with unexpected or illegal values, often at high rates and/or in high volumes.

      Consider the example of network routing software. A fuzzing tool might bombard routing software with illegal and constantly iterating values for every field in the
      IP header of every packet
      . Fuzzing tests often expose memory leaks or trigger hangs and reboots. They represent an excellent way to detect problems relatively early in development.

      Examples of DAST tools include
      CheckMarx AST
      , and

      As with SAST tools, most DAST products check software integrity against a known set of vulnerabilities and exposures. An interesting, but less common, method is to use a so-called anomaly-based approach, where a test tool monitors application traffic to determine a normal baseline, and then logs behavior outside that baseline.

      Project Ava
      represents an example of the anomaly-based approach.

      While DAST tools work with any type of software, a subset of tools focuses on web application testing. These tools may use some combination of SQL injection (described in detail below), spoofing, cross-site scripting attacks, URL manipulation, password cracking, and other web-specific vulnerabilities.

      Example products include
      , and the
      OWASP Zed Attack Proxy (ZAP)

      SQL Injection Testing

      SQL injection test tools exist as a standalone category because injection attacks are so common, especially against web-based applications. SQL injection attacks work by inserting, or “injecting”, data into SQL queries to compromise a target database.

      For example, a successful SQL injection attack modifies a database by adding, updating, or deleting fields. It may expose personally identifiable information (PII) such as credit-card numbers or medical records. In some cases, SQL injection attacks also send commands to the underlying operating system.

      Because SQL injection attacks are so common, numerous tools exist to automate testing of this class of vulnerabilities. Some examples include
      jSQL Injection
      , and
      . Another open-source tool,
      , automates testing of code-injection vulnerabilities in NoSQL databases such as

      Software Composition Analysis

      Software composition analysis (SCA) tools examine every component and library used by an application, including third-party software. SCA test tools help detect problems in the open-source components or libraries found in the vast majority of networked applications.

      SCA testing uses a hybrid of SAST and DAST approaches. One caveat with SCA tools (and indeed, with any AST tool that uses a set of known vulnerabilities) is that they cannot detect problems they don’t know about. For example, SCA tools cannot detect problems in proprietary libraries developed in-house. Still, SCA tools are invaluable not only to identify vulnerabilities but also for risk management and license compliance needs.

      Vendors of SCA tools include
      Contrast Security
      , and

      Mobile application Security Testing

      As the name suggests, mobile application security testing (MAST) tools look specifically for vulnerabilities in software built for mobile devices. Attackers may target a mobile device’s operating system, or its applications, or both. Some tools focus on apps on mobile devices, while others test back-end services such as cloud platforms and databases.

      Some examples of MAST tools include
      Fortify on Demand
      , and the open-source

      Runtime Application Self-Protection

      Runtime application self-protection (RASP) tools work in production settings by analyzing application traffic and user behavior. RASP uses a hybrid of SAST and DAST approaches, analyzing both source code and live binaries to identify attacks as they happen, and block attacks in real time. For example, a RASP tool may identify an attack that targets a specific API, and then block access to that API. RASP tools also log attempted exploits to external security event and information management (SIEM) systems, allowing for real-time notification.

      Example products include
      Signal Sciences
      , and

      Security Testing Best Practices

      The list below includes five ways that you can make optimal use of AST tools.

      • Shift left. Even with modern software development practices, it’s still common for security testing to begin well after initial coding starts. This is often due to development and test teams working in separate silos. It’s far safer and more efficient to integrate security testing into every development phase – that is, to shift left on project timelines. By shifting left you can reduce bug count, increase code quality, and lessen the chance of discovering critical issues later on during deployment. Security testers should be involved in initial planning, and should be an integral part of any development plan.

      • Don’t trust third-party code. Virtually all networked applications today include third-party components.
        As a famous comic wryly observed
        , modern infrastructure today might well depend on, “a project some random person in Nebraska has been thanklessly maintaining since 2003.” There are many excellent third-party components available, but the onus is on development teams to ensure any outsourced code is free from known vulnerabilities and kept up to date. SCA tools should be an essential part of any AST toolkit.

      • Integrate patch management into CI/CD processes. With the proliferation of zero-day vulnerabilities, it’s no longer sufficient to task IT managers with patch management, the practice of continually updating software to guard against newly discovered attack vectors in software. Certainly patch management is important in production settings, but it’s also critical in earlier stages of the software lifecycle.
        Continuous development and integration (CI/CD)
        teams need to include patching as part of their development processes, and ensure vulnerabilities are mitigated as soon as they’re discovered. This is particularly true when incorporating third-party components such as open-source libraries; those also need to be patched as soon as those projects announce fixes for known vulnerabilities.

      • Think negative thoughts. Especially in early-stage unit testing, it’s all too common to design tests that merely verify a component works as intended. Attackers don’t think this way, and neither should developers. Negative testing – presenting applications with unexpected values – should be part of every test plan.

      • Use all the tools. Information security depends on defense in depth, the concept of employing multiple safeguards to ensure no one component’s failure leads to compromise. In an AST context, this means integrating multiple types of security testing tools into the development process. As aforementioned, there are a wide variety of tools available. Developers, devops teams, and IT managers can greatly improve code security by learning to use these tools, and by implementing them through the application lifecycle.


      To reduce the risk of malicious attacks on your applications, it’s important to use application security testing tools to mitigate any vulnerabilities. This guide covered some of the most important areas of AST, like static application security testing, dynamic application security testing, and SQL injecting testing. These areas help cover security throughout an application’s technology stack and the software development lifecycle. See the
      security basics
      section our documentation library to learn more about security best practices in information technology.

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      SQL Security and User Management

      User management and permissions are essential to SQL database security. Typically, SQL database security schemes consist of one or more users, their authentication, and permissions. The database engine validates a user’s permissions when they attempt to perform an operation against a SQL object —for example, a table, an index, a stored procedure, etc. The basic premise behind the assignment of SQL roles and permissions is to provide users of the database access to only what is necessary to perform their job. In this guide, you learn how to create and assign roles and permissions to users of relational database systems.

      Users and Groups

      In order to grant access rights and permissions, a relational database management system requires user identities.
      These rights and permissions can be assigned to either an individual user, or a group of users. If you have more than one user with similar access requirements and restrictions, you can define a group. Then, you add the collective set of users as members of the appropriate group. In this way, the authentication and validation process for a given SQL object is applied against the group instead of the user. This assumes that no restrictions have been established for individual users. In the case where a user and the user’s group both have access restrictions on a given SQL object, the database applies the most restrictive access rights of either the user or the user’s group.


      Users of relational database systems are typically assigned roles. Different users might need to perform different tasks on the same database. For example, one user might be in charge of data entry, another user might be the database administrator, and an end-user may only need to retrieve data from the database. Typically, users that have the same type of role in an organization require the same type of database access. Each database role can have its own data access permission levels. Once the role is created and the appropriate permissions are applied, you can add individual users to that role. All users assigned to a particular role inherit its permissions.


      There are two different types of permissions that can be assigned to roles, users, and groups: statement permissions and object permissions. Statement permissions grant access to execute specific statements against a database. For example, a user could be granted access to create a stored procedure, but not be granted the right to create tables. Object permissions, on the other hand, grant the user the right to access a database object such as a table, a view, or to execute a stored procedure.

      Implementation of Users, Groups, Roles, and Permissions

      When it comes to the management of users, groups, roles, and permissions, the concepts stated in the previous sections are quite uniform across SQL-based database management systems. What may differ are the names of commands and the syntax used by different SQL database implementations.


      The examples below use Microsoft SQL Server syntax. All commands should be executed from the command line. The examples also assume that all server security hardening has already been implemented.

      To demonstrate SQL security principles, this guide uses an example database that is used by a school. The school’s database has tables for students and courses taken by each student. The definition of the Student table contains columns for the student’s SSNumber, Firstname, and Lastname, and the definition of the CourseTaken table contains columns for SSNumber, CourseId, NumericGrade, and YearTaken.

      The example further assumes that four employees in the school administer the school database. Their respective roles are defined as follows:

      Name Database Role
      Tom Database Administrator
      John Database Data Entry
      Mary Database Query and Reports
      Joan Database Query and Reports

      In the example below, assume that Tom, the database administrator (DBA), has created the school database via the CREATE DATABASE command:


      Next, Tom creates database user login definitions for all four employees (including themselves) via the CREATE USER command:

      Use School;
      CREATE USER Tom WITH PASSWORD = 'Tompassword';
      CREATE USER John WITH PASSWORD = 'Johnpassword';
      CREATE USER Mary WITH PASSWORD = 'Marypassword';
      CREATE USER Joan WITH PASSWORD = 'Joanpassword';
      CREATE USER Tom IDENTIFIED BY 'TomPassword';

      After creating user login definitions, Tom creates generic roles that will later be assigned to each employee, by using the CREATE ROLE command:

      USE School;
      CREATE ROLE DBAdmin;
      CREATE ROLE DataEntry;
      CREATE ROLE QueryReports;

      Now that the roles exist, Tom assigns the roles to the appropriate users with the ALTER ROLE command as follows:

      USE School
      ALTER ROLE DataEntry ADD MEMBER John;
      ALTER ROLE QueryReports ADD MEMBER Mary;
      ALTER ROLE QueryReports ADD MEMBER Joan;

      The workflow demonstrated in this section reflects the user management steps a DBA might need to take when configuring a newly created database.

      Granting Permissions

      The GRANT statement is used to assign permissions to a user or to a role. You can also use the GRANT statement to assign specific statement permissions to a user or to a role. Some of the statement permissions that can be granted are: CREATE DATABASE, CREATE DEFAULT, CREATE PROCEDURE, CREATE RULE, CREATE TABLE, CREATE VIEW, DUMP DATABASE, and DUMP TRANSACTION.

      For example, to grant the CREATE PROCEDURE statement permission to a user or a role, use the following command:


      Continuing along with this guide’s school database example, you can grant various permissions to the database roles you created in the previous section. Tom first grants required privileges to the DBAdmin Role (Tom’s role), via the GRANT command, as follows:

      USE School;

      Now, Tom can create the two tables in the school’s database as follows:

      USE School;
      CREATE TABLE Student (
        SSNumber CHAR(9) NOT NULL,
        LastName VARCHAR(30) NOT NULL,
        FirstName VARCHAR(20) NOT NULL
      CREATE TABLE CourseTaken (
        SSNumber CHAR(9) NOT NULL,
        CourseId CHAR(6) NOT NULL,
        NumericGrade TINYINT NOT NULL,
        YearTaken SMALLINT NOT NULL

      Tom grants necessary database entry permissions (INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE) on both database tables, to employee John (DBEntry role), as follows:

      USE School;


      After executing the above GRANT commands, John is permitted to INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE data in the two database tables, but is not permitted to read (SELECT) from it.

      Tom grants necessary database read permission (SELECT) on both database tables, to employees Mary and Joan, via the QueryReports role, as follows:

      USE School;
      GRANT SELECT ON Student TO QueryReports;
      GRANT SELECT ON CourseTaken TO QueryReports;


      After executing the above GRANT commands, Mary and Joan can only read the database tables (via the SELECT statement), but cannot manipulate the data (via the INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE statements).

      Revoking Permissions

      Revoking permissions is the converse of granting permissions on database objects. You can revoke permissions from a table, view, table-valued function, stored procedure, and many other types of database objects.

      Continuing with the school database example, assume that John switches his role at the school from performing data entry to querying reports. Due to this change, John should no longer have the ability to manipulate data (INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE) in the school tables. John should also be granted the ability to read data from the table (via SELECT). Tom, the database administrator, needs to execute the following commands to revoke and grant the appropriate permissions to John:

      USE School;
      GRANT SELECT ON Student TO John;
      GRANT SELECT ON CourseTaken TO John;

      Alternatively, a simpler approach is to remove John from the DBEntry role and add him to the QueryReports role:

      USE School;
      ALTER ROLE QueryReports ADD MEMBER John;


      User management, permissions, and roles are essential to SQL database security. Create a new group and add users to that group if they require the same database access and permissions. To control access by the tasks users should be allowed to perform against a database, use database roles.

      In SQL databases, every action must pass through a validity check that determines if the database action can be completed by a particular user. The appropriate permissions are required to access SQL database objects and execute statements. The integrity of a SQL database relies on secure and well-designed user management.

      Now that you are familiar with SQL user management, you can learn about some different aspects of the SQL language, like
      data types
      , and
      grouping and totaling

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