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      How to Resell Linode Services


      Updated by Linode Contributed by Linode

      Linode warmly welcomes and encourages the reselling of our services to third-party customers. Anyone can resell Linode services. This guide will walk you through the process of becoming a reseller.

      Note

      While Linode encourages reselling, we do not currently have a special reseller program. Linode does not offer discounted pricing for resellers at this time, nor do we directly offer white-label software, like WHMCS plugins, to aid in reselling. It is possible to create such software of your own via the Linode API.

      However, Linode does have a referral program. For more information on Linode’s referral program, read the referral codes section.

      What is a Reseller

      A reseller is any person or entity that charges a third party for Linode services, acting as a kind of middleman. Resellers are free to charge clients for full or partial access to Linode services, either through the use of the Linode API, or by giving a client access to Linode services provisioned on their behalf.

      There are a variety of reasons one might want to resell Linode services. One of the most common reasons developers and engineers become resellers is that they use Linode to test, develop, and/or host their client’s websites and apps, and in doing so need to bill those clients for charges accrued by the Linode services that power this business. Specific examples of this pattern include:

      • An agency that creates custom WordPress installations for their customers on Linode.

      • An app developer that uses Linode to host their customer’s database.

      • A business which operates a fully-fledged hosting platform based on Linode services, using tools like the Linode API. One such example is Cloudnet Sweden, a platform-as-a-service (PaaS) that uses Linode as a cloud host for their managed platform. Read our case study on Cloudnet Sweden for an in-depth look at why they chose to partner with Linode.

      Referral Codes

      As mentioned above, Linode does not offer a discount on re-sold Linode services. However, Linode does offer a referral program. If you feel like Linode is a good choice for another person, you can send them your referral code (or referral URL) to receive $20 per sign up.

      The credit for your referral will be applied to your account if the referral stays active as a Linode customer for 90 days. Specifically, the referred account will need to have at least one active, billed Linode service on their account throughout the 90 day period.

      Advertising your referral code to others is not the same as reselling Linode services. When someone else uses your referral code, they create an entirely separate Linode account with their own billing.

      Things Resellers Should Keep in Mind

      There are a few stipulations that resellers should keep in mind:

      • All resellers, and the customers of resellers, are bound to Linode’s Terms of Service (ToS). If for any reason a customer of a Linode reseller breaks Linode’s ToS, it is the reseller who will be held accountable. If you are planning on becoming a reseller it is a good idea to carefully craft a ToS of your own that is in accordance with Linode’s ToS.

      • All resellers, and the customers of resellers, are bound to Linode’s Acceptable Use Policy (AUP). If for any reason a customer of a Linode reseller breaks Linode’s AUP, it is the reseller who will be held accountable.

      • Payments are to be made directly to Linode by the reseller. If a customer of a reseller fails to pay the reseller for their services, the reseller is still responsible for their monthly payment to Linode.

      • Linode Support can help with issues related to the physical operation of your Linode services, but issues related to your software configuration are outside of the scope of Linode Support. Linode offers a number of resources to help with configuration questions. Linode Support is only available to people with access to a Linode Cloud Manager user. If your customers do not have their own Linode users, they will not be able to contact Linode Support.

      How to Resell Linode Service

      Linode API

      The best way to resell Linode services is through the use of the Linode API. The Linode API provides robust, programmatic access to the full suite of Linode services. Using the API, a reseller could set up a custom user interface to only allow the select features they want available for their customers. For example, it’s possible to create a UI that only enables 4GB Linode deployments and that automatically provisions those Linodes with a StackScript. For a tutorial on how to use the Linode API, check out our Getting Started with the Linode API guide. For a comprehensive view of the Linode API, see Linode’s API documentation. For a list of Linode API libraries and tools, head over to our developer portal.

      Limited Cloud Manager Users

      If a reseller wants to be able to give reseller customers access to parts of the Linode Cloud Manager without developing a new user interface, they can create a limited Manager user in the Cloud Manager. A user is a set of credentials that can access your Linode account, and your Linode account can have multiple users. A user can be restricted to have a limited set of permissions, such as only being able to access certain Linodes and not having access to your billing information. To create a limited user in the Cloud Manager, review the Users and Permissions section of the Accounts and Passwords guide.

      Note

      Cloud Manager users are not related to the Linux users on your Linodes. If you need to revoke a customer’s account access, you should remove access to both their Cloud Manager users and their Linux users. Read the Linux Users and Groups guide for more information on this subject.

      Limited Linux User Accounts

      A reseller might provide a customer with limited access to a Linode by creating an account for them at the operating system level. This provides the customer with access to their server, without access to the features of the Linode API or the Cloud Manager. For a hosting reseller that offers access to a pre-defined Linux environment, this is often a good solution. Read the Linux Users and Groups guide for more information on this subject. You may also want to limit users’ access to the filesystem with SFTP jails.

      Frequently Asked Questions

      Can I Show Linode’s Logos on My Site?

      Yes. Please use the official Linode logo assets.

      What Payment Methods are Available?

      Automatic payments can be made with a credit card. All Linode accounts are required to have a credit card on file. Manual PayPal payments can also be made, so you can add credit to your Linode account with PayPal. For more information on Linode’s billing, review the Billing and Payments guide.

      Does Linode Have a White-Label Interface?

      Linode does not offer a white-label interface, but you could create one via the Linode API.

      Can I Model my Terms of Service on Linode’s ToS?

      Yes, you can refer to Linode’s ToS and AUP when authoring your own, and your business and your customers need to comply with Linode’s ToS and AUP.

      Find answers, ask questions, and help others.

      This guide is published under a CC BY-ND 4.0 license.



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      Troubleshooting Web Servers, Databases, and Other Services


      Updated by Linode Written by Linode

      This guide presents troubleshooting strategies for when you can’t connect to your web server, database, or other services running on your Linode. This guide assumes that you have access to SSH. If you can’t log in with SSH, review Troubleshooting SSH and then return to this guide.

      Where to go for help outside this guide

      This guide explains how to use different troubleshooting commands on your Linode. These commands can produce diagnostic information and logs that may expose the root of your connection issues. For some specific examples of diagnostic information, this guide also explains the corresponding cause of the issue and presents solutions for it.

      If the information and logs you gather do not match a solution outlined here, consider searching the Linode Community Site for posts that match your system’s symptoms. Or, post a new question in the Community Site and include your commands’ output.

      Linode is not responsible for the configuration or installation of software on your Linode. Refer to Linode’s Scope of Support for a description of which issues Linode Support can help with.

      General Troubleshooting Strategies

      This section highlights troubleshooting strategies that apply to every service.

      Check if the Service is Running

      The service may not be running. Check the status of the service:

      Distribution Command                                                               
      systemd systems (Arch, Ubuntu 16.04+, Debian 8+, CentOS 7+, etc) sudo systemctl status <service name> -l
      sysvinit systems (CentOS 6, Ubuntu 14.04, Debian 7, etc) sudo service <service name> status

      Restart the Service

      If the service isn’t running, try restarting it:

      Distribution Command
      systemd systems sudo systemctl restart <service name>
      sysVinit systems sudo service <service name> restart

      Enable the Service

      If your system was recently rebooted, and the service didn’t start automatically at boot, then it may not be enabled. Enable the service to prevent this from happening in the future:

      Distribution Command
      systemd systems sudo systemctl enable <service name>
      sysVinit systems sudo chkconfig <service name> on

      Check your Service’s Bound IP Address and Ports

      Your service may be listening on an unexpected port, or it may not be bound to your public IP address (or whatever address is desirable). To view which address and ports a service is bound on, run the ss command with these options:

      sudo ss -atpu
      

      Review the application’s documentation for help determining the address and port your service should bind to.

      Note

      One notable example is if a service is only bound to a public IPv4 address and not to an IPv6 address. If a user connects to your Linode over IPv6, they will not be able to access the service.

      Analyze Service Logs

      If your service doesn’t start normally, review your system logs for the service. Your system logs may be in the following locations:

      Distribution System Logs
      systemd systems Run journalctl
      Ubuntu 14.04, Debian 7 /var/log/syslog
      CentOS 6 /var/log/messages

      Your service’s log location will vary by the application, but they are often stored in /var/log. The less command is a useful tool for browsing through your logs.

      Try pasting your log messages into a search engine or searching for your messages in the Linode Community Site to see if anyone else has run into similar issues. If you don’t find any results, you can try asking about your issues in a new post on the Linode Community Site. If it becomes difficult to find a solution, you may need to rebuild your Linode.

      Review Firewall Rules

      If your service is running but your connections still fail, your firewall (which is likely implemented by the iptables software) may be blocking the connections. To review your current firewall ruleset, run:

      sudo iptables -L # displays IPv4 rules
      sudo ip6tables -L # displays IPv6 rules
      

      Note

      Your deployment may be running FirewallD or UFW, which are frontends used to more easily manage your iptables rules. Run these commands to find out if you are running either package:

      sudo ufw status
      sudo firewall-cmd --state
      

      Review How to Configure a Firewall with UFW and Introduction to FirewallD on CentOS to learn how to manage and inspect your firewall rules with those packages.

      Firewall rulesets can vary widely. Review the Control Network Traffic with iptables guide to analyze your rules and determine if they are blocking connections. For example, a rule which allows incoming HTTP traffic could look like this:

        
      -A INPUT -p tcp -m tcp --dport 80 -m conntrack --ctstate NEW -j ACCEPT
      
      

      Disable Firewall Rules

      In addition to analyzing your firewall ruleset, you can also temporarily disable your firewall to test if it is interfering with your connections. Leaving your firewall disabled increases your security risk, so we recommend re-enabling it afterward with a modified ruleset that will accept your connections. Review Control Network Traffic with iptables for help with this subject.

      1. Create a temporary backup of your current iptables:

        sudo iptables-save > ~/iptables.txt
        
      2. Set the INPUT, FORWARD and OUTPUT packet policies as ACCEPT:

        sudo iptables -P INPUT ACCEPT
        sudo iptables -P FORWARD ACCEPT
        sudo iptables -P OUTPUT ACCEPT
        
      3. Flush the nat table that is consulted when a packet that creates a new connection is encountered:

        sudo iptables -t nat -F
        
      4. Flush the mangle table that is used for specialized packet alteration:

        sudo iptables -t mangle -F
        
      5. Flush all the chains in the table:

        sudo iptables -F
        
      6. Delete every non-built-in chain in the table:

        sudo iptables -X
        
      7. Repeat these steps with the ip6tables command to flush your IPv6 rules. Be sure to assign a different name to the IPv6 rules file (e.g. ~/ip6tables.txt).

      Troubleshoot Web Servers

      If your web server is not running or if connections are timing out, review the general troubleshooting strategies.

      Note

      If your web server is responding with an error code, your troubleshooting will vary by what code is returned. For more detailed information about each request that’s failing, read your web server’s logs. Here are some commands that can help you find your web server’s logs:

      • Apache:

        grep ErrorLog -r /etc/apache2  # On Ubuntu, Debian
        grep ErrorLog -r /etc/httpd    # On CentOS, Fedora, RHEL
        
      • NGINX:

        grep error_log -r /etc/nginx
        

      Frequent Error Codes

      • HTTP 401 Unauthorized, HTTP 403 Forbidden

        The requesting user did not have sufficient permission or access to the requested URL. Review your web server authorization and access control configuration:

      • HTTP 404 Not Found

        The URL that a user requested could not be found by the web server. Review your web server configuration and make sure your website files are stored in the right location on your filesystem:

      • HTTP 500, 502, 503, 504

        The web server requested a resource from a process it depends on, but the process did not respond as expected. For example, if a database query needs to be performed for a web request, but the database isn’t running, then a 50X code will be returned. To troubleshoot these issues, investigate the service that the web server depends on.

      Troubleshoot Databases

      Is your Disk Full?

      One common reason that a database may not start is if your disk is full. To check how much disk space you are using, run:

      df -h
      

      Note

      This reported disk usage is not the same as the reported storage usage in the Linode Manager. The storage usage in the Linode Manager refers to how much of the the disk space you pay for is allocated to your Linode’s disks. The output of df -h shows how full those disks are.

      You have several options for resolving disk space issues:

      • Free up space on your disk by locating and removing files you don’t need, using a tool like ncdu.

      • If you have any unallocated space on your Linode (storage that you pay for already but which isn’t assigned to your disk), resize your disk to take advantage of the space.

      • Upgrade your Linode to a higher-tier resource plan and then resize your disk to use the newly available space. If your Linode has a pending free upgrade for your storage space, you can choose to take this free upgrade to solve the issue.

      Database Performance Troubleshooting

      If your database is running but returning slowly, research how to optimize the database software for the resources your Linode has. If you run MySQL or MariaDB, read How to Optimize MySQL Performance Using MySQLTuner.

      Find answers, ask questions, and help others.

      This guide is published under a CC BY-ND 4.0 license.



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