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      How To Record and Share Terminal Sessions Using Terminalizer on Ubuntu 18.04


      The author selected the Electronic Frontier Foundation to receive a donation as part of the Write for DOnations program.

      Introduction

      Terminalizer is a terminal recorder application that allows you to record your terminal session in real-time, and then play it back at a later date. It works in the same way as a desktop screen recorder, but instead runs in your terminal.

      Recording your terminal session is useful if you want to review a particular activity again, or to help debug a particularly tricky error. Recordings made with Terminalizer can also be exported as animated GIFs, which are great for sharing online or adding to marketing material for your software.

      In this tutorial, you will install Terminalizer, use it to record and play back terminal sessions, customize your recordings, and then export them to share online.

      Prerequisites

      To complete this tutorial, you will need:

      If you wish to share your recordings online, you’ll also need:

      Once you have these ready, log in to your server as your non-root user to begin.

      Step 1 — Installing Terminalizer

      In this step, you will download and install Terminalizer on your system. Terminalizer is written using Node.js, and is available to install using the npm package manager.

      To install Terminalizer globally on your system, run the following command:

      • sudo npm install --global --allow-root --unsafe-perm=true terminalizer

      Terminalizer uses the Electron application framework to export recorded terminal sessions into GIF format. The --unsafe-perms=true command argument is required in order to install Electron globally on your system.

      Once Terminalizer has been installed, you’ll see similar output to the following:

      Output

      . . . /usr/local/lib └── terminalizer@0.7.1

      Next, check your installation of Terminalizer by running:

      This will display something similar to the following:

      Output

      0.7.1

      Finally, generate a default Terminalizer configuration file, which you can use for Terminalizer’s advanced customization (detailed further in Step 4):

      This will produce output similar to the following:

      Output

      The global config directory is created at /home/user/.terminalizer

      Now that you’ve installed Terminalizer, you can make your first terminal recording.

      Step 2 — Recording and Playing Back a Terminal Session

      In this step, you will record and playback a terminal session.

      To begin, set up a new Terminalizer recording using a name of your choice:

      • terminalizer record your-recording

      This will output the following to indicate that the recording has started:

      Output

      The recording session has started Press Ctrl+D to exit and save the recording

      You can now proceed to do anything that you want within your terminal. Each key press and command will be recorded in real-time by Terminalizer.

      For example:

      • pwd
      • date
      • whoami
      • echo "Hello, world!"

      When you’d like to stop the recording, press CTRL+D. Terminalizer will then save the recording to the specified file in YAML format, for example, your-recording.yml.

      Output

      Successfully Recorded The recording data is saved into the file: /home/user/your-recording.yml

      You may be prompted by Terminalizer to share your recording online. Just press CTRL+C to cancel this for now, as you can playback the terminal recording locally first.

      Next, play your recorded terminal session with the followng command:

      • terminalizer play your-recording

      This will replay the recorded session in real-time in your terminal:

      Output

      user@droplet:~$ pwd /home/user user@droplet:~$ date Sun Mar 8 14:55:36 UTC 2020 user@droplet:~$ whoami user user@droplet:~$ echo "Hello, world!" Hello, world! user@droplet:~$ logout

      You can also adjust the playback speed of your recording using the --speed-factor option.

      For example, the following will playback your recording twice as slowly (half speed):

      • terminalizer play your-recording --speed-factor 2

      Alternatively, you can play back your recording twice as fast (double speed):

      • terminalizer play your-recording --speed-factor 0.5

      You’ve recorded and played back a terminal session. Next, you can share a recorded terminal session online.

      Step 3 — Sharing a Recorded Terminal Session

      In this step, you’ll share your recorded terminal session online on the Terminalizer Explore page.

      Begin by selecting a recorded session to share:

      • terminalizer share your-recording

      You will then be prompted to provide some basic metadata about your recording, such as the title and description:

      Output

      Please enter some details about your recording ? Title Title of Your Recording ? Description Description of Your Recording ? Tags such as git,bash,game Comma-separated Tags for Your Recording

      Warning: Terminalizer recordings are shared publicly by default, so ensure that there are no personally identifiable or confidential details present in your terminal recording that you don’t want to share.

      If this is the first time that you’ve shared a recorded session using Terminalizer, you’ll need to link your Terminalizer account. Terminalizer will display a verification link if this is required:

      Output

      Open the following link in your browser and login into your account https://terminalizer.com/token?token=your-token When you do it, press any key to continue

      Warning: Ensure that you keep your Terminalizer token private, as it will allow anyone in possession of it to access your Terminalizer account.

      Once you have visited the link in your web browser and signed in to your Terminalizer account, press any key to continue.

      Terminalizer will now upload your recording and provide you the link to view it:

      Output

      Successfully Uploaded The recording is available on the link: https://terminalizer.com/view/your-recording-id

      Visiting the link in a desktop web browser will allow you to view your shared recording:

      A screenshot of the Terminalizer website, showing an example of a shared terminal recording

      You’ve shared a recorded terminal session on the Terminalizer website and viewed it in your web browser.

      Step 4 — Setting Advanced Terminalizer Configuration

      Now that you’ve gained some familiarity with Terminalizer, you can begin to review some of the more advanced customization options, such as the ability to adjust the display colors and style.

      Each recording inherits the default configuration from the global Terminalizer config file, which is located at ~/.terminalizer/config.yml. This means that you can edit the configuration for individual recordings directly by editing the recording file (e.g. your-recording.yml). Alternatively, you can edit the global configuration, which will have an impact on all new recordings.

      In this example you’ll edit the global configuration file, but the same guidance applies to individual recording configuration files as well.

      Begin by opening the global Terminalizer configuration file in your text editor, such as nano:

      • nano ~/.terminalizer/config.yml

      Each of the available configuration options within the file are commented in order to explain what they do.

      There are several common configuration options that you may wish to adjust to your liking:

      • cols: Explicitly set the number of terminal columns used for your recording.
      • rows: Explicitly set the number of terminal rows used for your recording.
      • frameDelay: Override the delay between each keystroke during playback.
      • maxIdleTime: Specify a maximum time between keystrokes during playback.
      • cursorStyle: Specify the default terminal cursor style out of block, bar, and underline.
      • fontFamily: Specify a list of preferred playback fonts, in order of preference.
      • theme: Adjust the color scheme of the playback, for example to create a black-on-white terminal, etc.

      As an example, you can achieve a white-on-black terminal display by configuring the following options:

      config.yml

      . . .
      theme:
        background: "white"
        foreground: "black"
      . . .
      

      This will produce a result similar to the following:

      A screenshot of the Terminalizer website, showing an example of a recording with a black-on-white theme

      You could adjust the cursor style to make the recording easier to understand, for example by swapping the default block-style cursor with an underlined one:

      config.yml

      . . .
      cursorStyle: underline
      . . .
      

      This produces a result similar to the following:

      A screenshot of the Terminalizer website, showing an example of a recording with an underline-style cursor

      Once you have made any desired changes, save the file and return to your terminal.

      If you edited the global Terminalizer configuration, these settings will apply to all new recordings going forward. If you’re editing a specific recording configuration, Terminalizer will immediately apply the changes to that particular recording.

      Note that custom playback styling only applies to shared recording sessions. Playing them back directly in your terminal will always use your default terminal styling and color scheme.

      In this final step, you reviewed some of the advanced configuration options for Terminalizer.

      Conclusion

      In this article you used Terminalizer to record and share a terminal session. You now have the knowledge required to create recorded demos of your software for use in marketing material, or to share command-line tricks with friends.

      If you wish to render and export Terminalizer recordings into GIF format, you can install Terminalizer on a machine with a graphical user interface/desktop and use the built-in rendering features:

      You may also wish to browse the Terminalizer website to see recorded terminal sessions shared by other users:



      Source link

      How To Sync and Share Your Files with Seafile on Debian 10


      Introduction

      Seafile is an open-source, self-hosted, file synchronization and sharing platform. Users can store and optionally encrypt data on their own servers with storage space as the only limitation. With Seafile you can share files and folders using cross-platform syncing and password-protected links to files with expiration dates. A file-versioning feature means that users can restore deleted and modified files or folders.

      In this tutorial, you will install and configure Seafile on a Debian 10 server. You will use MariaDB (the default MySQL variant on Debian 10) to store data for the different components of Seafile, and Apache as the proxy server to handle the web traffic. After completing this tutorial, you will be able use the web interface to access Seafile from desktop or mobile clients, allowing you to sync and share your files with other users or groups on the server or with the public.

      Prerequisites

      Before you begin this guide, you’ll need the following:

      Step 1 — Creating Databases for the Seafile Components

      Seafile requires three components in order to work properly:

      • Seahub: Seafile’s web frontend, written in Python using the Django web framework. From Seahub you can access, manage, and share your files using a web browser.
      • Seafile server: The data service daemon that manages the raw file upload, download, and synchronization. You do not interact with the server directly, but instead use a client program or the Seahub web interface.
      • Ccnet server: The RPC service daemon to enable internal communication between the different components of Seafile. For example, when you use Seahub, it is able to access data from the Seafile server using the Ccnet RPC service.

      Each of these components stores its data separately in its own database. In this step you will create the three MariaDB databases and a user before proceeding to set up the server.

      First, log in to the server using SSH with your username and IP address:

      ssh sammy@your_server_ip
      

      Connect to the MariaDB database server as administrator (root):

      At the MariaDB prompt, use the following SQL command to create the database user:

      • CREATE USER 'sammy'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'password';

      Next, you will create the following databases to store the data of the three Seafile components:

      • ccnet-db for the Ccnet server.
      • seahub-db for the Seahub web frontend.
      • seafile-db for the Seafile file server.

      At the MariaDB prompt, create your databases:

      • CREATE DATABASE 'ccnet-db' CHARACTER SET = 'utf8';
      • CREATE DATABASE 'seafile-db' CHARACTER SET = 'utf8';
      • CREATE DATABASE 'seahub-db' CHARACTER SET = 'utf8';

      Then, grant all privileges to your database user to access and make changes in these databases:

      • GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON 'ccnet-db'.* to 'sammy'@localhost;
      • GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON 'seafile-db'.* to 'sammy'@localhost;
      • GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON 'seahub-db'.* to 'sammy'@localhost;

      Exit the MariaDB prompt by typing exit:

      Now that you have created a user and the databases required to store the data for each of the Seafile components, you will install dependencies to download the Seafile server package.

      Step 2 — Installing Dependencies and Downloading Seafile

      Some parts of Seafile are written in Python and therefore require additional Python modules and programs to work. In this step, you will install these required dependencies before downloading and extracting the Seafile server package.

      To install the dependencies using apt run the following command:

      • sudo apt install python-setuptools python-pip python-urllib3 python-requests python-mysqldb ffmpeg

      The python-setuptools and python-pip dependencies oversee installing and managing Python packages. The python-urllib3 and python-requests packages make requests to websites. Finally, the python-mysqldb is a library for using MariaDB from Python and ffmpeg handles multimedia files.

      Seafile requires Pillow, a python library for image processing, and moviepy to handle movie file thumbnails. These modules are not available in the Debian package repository, so instead install them with pip:

      • sudo pip install Pillow moviepy

      Now that you have installed the necessary dependencies, you can download the Seafile server package.

      Seafile creates additional directories during setup. To keep them all organized, create a new directory and change into it:

      You can now download the latest version (7.0.4 as of this writing) of the Seafile server from the project website by running the following command:

      • wget https://download.seadrive.org/seafile-server_7.0.4_x86-64.tar.gz

      Seafile distributes the download as a compressed tar archive, which means you will need to extract it before proceeding. Extract the archive using tar:

      • tar -zxvf seafile-server_7.0.4_x86-64.tar.gz

      Now change into the extracted directory:

      At this stage, you have downloaded and extracted the Seafile server package and have also installed the necessary dependencies. You are now ready to configure the Seafile server.

      Step 3 — Configuring the Seafile Server

      Seafile needs some information about your setup before you start the services for the first time. This includes details like the domain name, the database configuration, and the path where it will store data. To initiate the series of question prompts to provide this information, you can run the script setup_seafile_mysql.sh, which is included in the archive you extracted in the previous step.

      Run the script using bash:

      • bash setup-seafile-mysql.sh

      Press ENTER to continue when prompted.

      The script will now prompt you with a series of questions. Wherever defaults are mentioned, pressing the ENTER key will use that value.

      This tutorial uses Seafile as the server name, but you can change it if you'd like:

      Question 1
      
      What is the name of the server?
      It will be displayed on the client. 3 - 15 letters or digits
      [ server name ] Seafile
      

      For Question 2, enter the domain name for this Seafile instance.

      Question 2
      
      What is the ip or domain of the server?.
      For example: www.mycompany.com, 192.168.1.101
      [ This server's ip or domain ] your_domain
      

      Press ENTER to accept the default value for Question 3. If you have set up external storage, for example, using NFS or block storage, you will need to specify the path to that location here instead.

      Question 3
      
      Where do you want to put your seafile data?
      Please use a volume with enough free space
      [ default "/home/sammy/seafile/seafile-data" ]
      

      For Question 4 press ENTER to accept the default port number.

      Question 4
      
      Which port do you want to use for the seafile fileserver?
      [ default "8082" ]
      

      The next prompt allows you to confirm the database configuration. You can create new databases or use existing databases for setup. For this tutorial you have created the necessary databases in Step 1, so select option 2 here.

      -------------------------------------------------------
      Please choose a way to initialize seafile databases:
      -------------------------------------------------------
      
      [1] Create new ccnet/seafile/seahub databases
      [2] Use existing ccnet/seafile/seahub databases
      
      [ 1 or 2 ] 2
      

      Questions 6–9 relate to the MariaDB database server. You need to provide the username and password of the MySQL user that you created in Step 1, but you can press ENTER to accept the default values for host and port.

      
      What is the host of mysql server?
      
      [ default "localhost" ]
      
      What is the port of mysql server?
      
      [ default "3306" ]
      
      Which mysql user to use for seafile?
      
      [ mysql user for seafile ] sammy
      
      What is the password for mysql user "seafile"?
      
      [ password for seafile ] password
      

      After providing the password, the script will request the names of the Seafile databases. Use ccnet-db, seafile-db, and seahub-db for this tutorial. The script will then verify if there is a successful connection to the databases before proceeding to display a summary of the initial configuration.

      Enter the existing database name for ccnet:
      [ ccnet database ] ccnet-db
      
      verifying user "sammy" access to database ccnet-db ...  done
      
      Enter the existing database name for seafile:
      [ seafile database ] seafile-db
      
      verifying user "sammy" access to database seafile-db ...  done
      
      Enter the existing database name for seahub:
      [ seahub database ] seahub-db
      
      verifying user "sammyFor this tutorial you have" access to database seahub-db ...  done
      
      ---------------------------------
      This is your configuration
      ---------------------------------
      
          server name:            Seafile
          server ip/domain:       your_domain
      
          seafile data dir:       /home/sammy/seafile/seafile-data
          fileserver port:        8082
      
          database:               use existing
          ccnet database:         ccnet-db
          seafile database:       seafile-db
          seahub database:        seahub-db
          database user:          sammy
      
      --------------------------------
      Press ENTER to continue, or Ctrl-C to abort
      ---------------------------------
      

      Press ENTER to confirm.

      Output

      Generating ccnet configuration ... done Successly create configuration dir /home/sammy/seafile/ccnet. Generating seafile configuration ... done Generating seahub configuration ... ---------------------------------------- Now creating seahub database tables ... ---------------------------------------- creating seafile-server-latest symbolic link ... done ----------------------------------------------------------------- Your seafile server configuration has been finished successfully. ----------------------------------------------------------------- run seafile server: ./seafile.sh { start | stop | restart } run seahub server: ./seahub.sh { start <port> | stop | restart <port> } ----------------------------------------------------------------- If you are behind a firewall, remember to allow input/output of these tcp ports: ----------------------------------------------------------------- port of seafile fileserver: 8082 port of seahub: 8000 When problems occur, Refer to https://github.com/haiwen/seafile/wiki for information.

      You will be running Seafile behind Apache, which you've already allowed through your server's firewall. Hence, you don't need to worry about opening ports 8082 and 8000 as well and you can ignore that part of the output.

      You have completed the initial configuration of the server. In the next step, you will configure the Apache web server before starting the Seafile services.

      Step 4 — Configuring the Apache Web Server

      In this step, you will configure the Apache web server to forward all requests to Seafile. Using Apache in this manner allows you to use a URL without a port number, enable HTTPS connections to Seafile, and make use of the caching functionality that Apache provides for better performance.

      To begin forwarding requests, you will need to enable the proxy_http module in the Apache configuration. This module provides features for proxying HTTP and HTTPS requests. The following command will enable the module:

      Note: The Apache rewrite and ssl modules are also required for this setup. You have already enabled these modules as part of configuring Let's Encrypt in the second Apache tutorial listed in the prerequisites section.

      Next, update the virtual host configuration of your_domain to forward requests to the Seafile file server and to the Seahub web interface.

      Open the configuration file in a text editor:

      • sudo nano /etc/apache2/sites-enabled/your_domain-le-ssl.conf

      The lines from ServerAdmin to SSLCertificateKeyFile are part of the initial Apache and Let's Encrypt configuration that you set up in the prerequisite tutorials. Add the highlighted content, beginning at Alias and ending with the ProxyPassReverse directive:

      /etc/apache2/sites-enabled/your_domain-le-ssl.conf

      
      <IfModule mod_ssl.c>
      <VirtualHost *:443>
          ServerAdmin admin@your_email_domain
          ServerName your_domain
          ServerAlias www.your_domain
          DocumentRoot /var/www/your_domain/html
          ErrorLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/your_domain-error.log
          CustomLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/your_domain-access.log combined
      
          Include /etc/letsencrypt/options-ssl-apache.conf
          SSLCertificateFile /etc/letsencrypt/live/your_domain/fullchain.pem
          SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/letsencrypt/live/your_domain/privkey.pem
      
          Alias /media  /home/sammy/seafile/seafile-server-latest/seahub/media
          <Location /media>
              Require all granted
          </Location>
      
          # seafile fileserver
          ProxyPass /seafhttp http://127.0.0.1:8082
          ProxyPassReverse /seafhttp http://127.0.0.1:8082
          RewriteEngine On
          RewriteRule ^/seafhttp - [QSA,L]
      
          # seahub web interface
          SetEnvIf Authorization "(.*)" HTTP_AUTHORIZATION=$1
          ProxyPass / http://127.0.0.1:8000/
          ProxyPassReverse / http://127.0.0.1:8000/
      </VirtualHost>
      </IfModule>
      

      The Alias directive maps the URL path your_domain/media to a local path in the file system that Seafile uses. The following Location directive enables access to content in this directory. The ProxyPass and ProxyPassReverse directives make Apache act as a reverse proxy for this host, forwarding requests to / and /seafhttp to the Seafile web interface and file server running on local host ports 8000 and 8082 respectively. The RewriteRule directive passes all requests to /seafhttp unchanged and stops processing further rules ([QSA,L]).

      Save and exit the file.

      Test if there are any syntax errors in the virtual host configuration:

      • sudo apache2ctl configtest

      If it reports Syntax OK, then there are no issues with your configuration. Restart Apache for the changes to take effect:

      • sudo systemctl restart apache2

      You have now configured Apache to act as a reverse proxy for the Seafile file server and Seahub. Next, you will update the URLs in Seafile's configuration before starting the services.

      Step 5 — Updating Seafile's Configuration and Starting Services

      As you are now using Apache to proxy all requests to Seafile, you will need to update the URLs in Seafile's configuration files in the conf directory using a text editor before you start the Seafile service.

      Open ccnet.conf in a text editor:

      • nano /home/sammy/seafile/conf/ccnet.conf

      Near the top of the file, within the [General] block, is the SERVICE_URL directive. It will look like this:

      Update /home/sammy/seafile/conf/ccnet.conf

      . . .
      SERVICE_URL=http://www.example.com:8000
      . . .
      

      Modify this setting to point to your domain. Be sure that the URL you provide uses the HTTPS protocol, and that it does not include any port number:

      Update /home/sammy/seafile/conf/ccnet.conf

      . . .
      SERVICE_URL = https://your_domain
      . . .
      

      Save and exit the file once you have added the content.

      Now open seahub_settings.py in a text editor:

      • nano /home/sammy/seafile/conf/seahub_settings.py

      Add a FILE_SERVER_ROOT setting in the file to specify the path where the file server is listening for file uploads and downloads:

      Update /home/sammy/seafile/conf/seahub_settings.py

      # -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
      SECRET_KEY = "..."
      FILE_SERVER_ROOT = 'https://your_domain/seafhttp'
      # ...
      

      Save and exit seahub_settings.py.

      Now you can start the Seafile service and the Seahub interface:

      • cd /home/sammy/seafile/seafile-server-7.0.4
      • ./seafile.sh start
      • ./seahub.sh start

      As this is the first time you have started the Seahub service, it will prompt you to create an admin account. Enter a valid email address and a password for this admin user:

      Output

      What is the email for the admin account? [ admin email ] admin@your_email_domain What is the password for the admin account? [ admin password ] password-here Enter the password again: [ admin password again ] password-here ---------------------------------------- Successfully created seafile admin ---------------------------------------- Seahub is started Done.

      Open https://your_domain in a web browser and log in using your Seafile admin email address and password.

      Login screen of the Seafile web interface

      Once logged in successfully, you can access the admin interface or create new users.

      Now that you have verified the web interface is working correctly, you can enable these services to start automatically at system boot in the next step.

      Step 6 — Enabling the Seafile Server to Start at System Boot

      To enable the file server and the web interface to start automatically at boot, you can create their respective systemd service files and activate them.

      Create a systemd service file for the Seafile file server:

      • sudo nano /etc/systemd/system/seafile.service

      Add the following content to the file:

      Create /etc/systemd/system/seafile.service

      [Unit]
      Description=Seafile
      After=network.target mysql.service
      
      [Service]
      Type=forking
      ExecStart=/home/sammy/seafile/seafile-server-latest/seafile.sh start
      ExecStop=/home/sammy/seafile/seafile-server-latest/seafile.sh stop
      User=sammy
      Group=sammy
      
      [Install]
      WantedBy=multi-user.target
      

      Here, the ExectStart and ExecStop lines indicate the commands that run to start and stop the Seafile service. The service will run with sammy as the User and Group. The After line specifies that the Seafile service will start after the networking and MariaDB service has started.

      Save seafile.service and exit.

      Create a systemd service file for the Seahub web interface:

      • sudo nano /etc/systemd/system/seahub.service

      This is similar to the Seafile service. The only difference is that the web interface is started after the Seafile service. Add the following content to this file:

      Create /etc/systemd/system/seahub.service

      [Unit]
      Description=Seafile hub
      After=network.target seafile.service
      
      [Service]
      Type=forking
      ExecStart=/home/sammy/seafile/seafile-server-latest/seahub.sh start
      ExecStop=/home/sammy/seafile/seafile-server-latest/seahub.sh stop
      User=sammy
      Group=sammy
      
      [Install]
      WantedBy=multi-user.target
      

      Save seahub.service and exit.

      You can learn more about systemd unit files in the Understanding Systemd Units and Unit Files tutorial.

      Finally, to enable both the Seafile and Seahub services to start automatically at boot, run the following commands:

      • sudo systemctl enable seafile.service
      • sudo systemctl enable seahub.service

      When the server is rebooted, Seafile will start automatically.

      At this point, you have completed setting up the server, and can now test each of the services.

      Step 7 — Testing File Syncing and Sharing Functionality

      In this step, you will test the file synchronization and sharing functionality of the server you have set up and ensure they are working correctly. To do this, you will need to install the Seafile client program on a separate computer and/or a mobile device.

      Visit the download page on the Seafile website and follow the instructions to install the latest version of the client program on your computer. Seafile clients are available for the various distributions of Linux (Ubuntu, Debian, Fedora, Centos/RHEL, Arch Linux), MacOS, and Windows. Mobile clients are available for Android and iPhone/iPad devices from the respective app stores.

      Once you have installed the Seafile client, you can test the file synchronization and sharing functionality.

      Open the Seafile client program on your computer or device. Accept the default location for the Seafile folder and click Next.

      In the next window, enter the server address, username, and password, then click Login.

      At the home page, right click on My Library and click Sync this library. Accept the default value for the location on your computer or device.

      Seafile client — Sync the default library

      Add a file, for example a document or a photo, into the My Library folder. After some time, the file will upload to the server. The following screenshot shows the file photo.jpg copied to the My Library folder.

      Add a file to the default library from the computer

      Now, log in to the web interface at https://your_domain and verify that your file is present on the server.

      My Library page to verify file sync

      Click on Share next to the file to generate a download link for this file that you can share.

      You have verified that the file synchronization is working correctly and that you can use Seafile to sync and share files and folders from multiple devices.

      Conclusion

      In this tutorial you set up a private instance of a Seafile server. Now you can start using the server to synchronize files, add users and groups, and share files between them or with the public without relying on an external service.

      When a new release of the server is available, please consult the upgrade section of the manual for steps to perform an upgrade.



      Source link

      How To Sync and Share Your Files with Seafile on Debian 9


      The author selected Electronic Frontier Foundation Inc to receive a donation as part of the Write for DOnations program.

      Introduction

      Seafile is an open-source, self-hosted, file synchronization and sharing platform. Users can store and optionally encrypt data on their own servers with storage space as the only limitation. With Seafile you can share files and folders using cross-platform syncing and password-protected links to files with expiration dates. A file-versioning feature means that users can restore deleted and modified files or folders.

      In this tutorial, you will install and configure Seafile on a Debian 9 server. You will use MariaDB (the default MySQL variant on Debian 9) to store data for the different components of Seafile, and Apache as the proxy server to handle the web traffic. After completing this tutorial, you will be able use the web interface to access Seafile from desktop or mobile clients, allowing you to sync and share your files with other users or groups on the server or with the public.

      Prerequisites

      Before you begin this guide, you’ll need the following:

      • One Debian 9 server with a minimum of 2GB of RAM set up by following this Initial Server Setup with Debian 9 tutorial, including a sudo non-root user and a firewall.
      • An Apache web server with a virtual host configured for the registered domain by following How To Install the Apache Web Server on Debian 9.
      • An SSL certificate installed on your server by following this How To Secure Apache with Let’s Encrypt on Debian 9 tutorial.
      • A fully registered domain name. This tutorial will use example.com throughout.
      • Both of the following DNS records set up for your server. You can follow this introduction to DigitalOcean DNS for details on how to add them.

        • An A record with example.com pointing to your server’s public IP address.
        • An A record with www.example.com pointing to your server’s public IP address.
      • A MariaDB database server installed and configured. Follow the steps in the How To Install MariaDB on Debian 9 tutorial. Skip Step 3 of this tutorial — “(Optional) Adjusting User Authentication and Privileges”. You will only be making local connections to the database server, so changing the authentication method for the root user is not necessary.

      Step 1 — Creating Databases for the Seafile Components

      Seafile requires three components in order to work properly. These three components are:

      • Seahub: Seafile’s web frontend, written in Python using the Django web framework. From Seahub you can access, manage, and share your files using a web browser.
      • Seafile server: The data service daemon that manages the raw file upload, download, and synchronization. You do not interact with the server directly, but use one of the client programs or the Seahub web interface.
      • Ccnet server: The RPC service daemon to enable internal communication between the different components of Seafile. For example, when you use Seahub, it is able to access data from the Seafile server using the Ccnet RPC service.

      Each of these components stores its data separately in its own database. In this step you will create the three MariaDB databases and a user before proceeding to set up the server.

      First, log in to the server using SSH with your username and IP address:

      ssh sammy@your_server_ip
      

      Connect to the MariaDB database server as administrator (root):

      At the MariaDB prompt, use the following SQL command to create the database user:

      • CREATE USER 'sammy'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'password';

      Next, you will create the following databases to store the data of the three Seafile components:

      • ccnet-db for the Ccnet server.
      • seahub-db for the Seahub web frontend.
      • seafile-db for the Seafile file server.

      At the MariaDB prompt, create your databases:

      • CREATE DATABASE `ccnet-db` CHARACTER SET = 'utf8';
      • CREATE DATABASE `seafile-db` CHARACTER SET = 'utf8';
      • CREATE DATABASE `seahub-db` CHARACTER SET = 'utf8';

      Then, grant all privileges to the Seafile database user to access and make changes in these databases:

      • GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON `ccnet-db`.* to `sammy`@localhost;
      • GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON `seafile-db`.* to `sammy`@localhost;
      • GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON `seahub-db`.* to `sammy`@localhost;

      Exit the MariaDB prompt by typing exit:

      Now that you have created a user and the databases required to store the data for each of the Seafile components, you will install dependencies to download the Seafile server package.

      Step 2 — Installing Dependencies and Downloading Seafile

      Some parts of Seafile are written in Python and therefore require additional Python modules and programs to work. In this step, you will install these required dependencies before downloading and extracting the Seafile server package.

      To install the dependencies using apt run the following command:

      • sudo apt install python-setuptools python-pip python-urllib3 python-requests python-mysqldb ffmpeg

      The python-setuptools and python-pip dependencies oversee installing and managing Python packages. The python-urllib3 and python-requests packages make requests to websites. Finally, the python-mysqldb is a library for using MariaDB from Python and ffmpeg handles multimedia files.

      Seafile requires Pillow, a python library for image processing, and moviepy to handle movie file thumbnails. These modules are not available in the Debian package repository. You will install them manually using pip:

      • sudo pip install Pillow==4.3.0 moviepy

      Now that you have installed the necessary dependencies, you can download the Seafile server package.

      Seafile creates additional directories during setup. To keep them all organized, create a new directory and change into it:

      You can now download the latest version (6.3.4 as of this writing) of the Seafile server from the website by running the following command:

      • wget https://download.seadrive.org/seafile-server_6.3.4_x86-64.tar.gz

      Seafile distributes the download as a compressed tar archive, which means you will need to extract it before proceeding. Extract the archive using tar:

      • tar -zxvf seafile-server_6.3.4_x86-64.tar.gz

      Now change into the extracted directory:

      At this stage, you have downloaded and extracted the Seafile server package and have also installed the necessary dependencies. You are now ready to configure the Seafile server.

      Step 3 — Configuring the Seafile Server

      Seafile needs some information about your setup before you start the services for the first time. This includes details like the domain name, the database configuration, and the path where it will store data. To initiate the series of question prompts to provide this information, you can run the script setup_seafile_mysql.sh, which is included in the archive you extracted in the previous step.

      Run the script using bash:

      • bash setup-seafile-mysql.sh

      Press ENTER to continue.

      The script will now prompt you with a series of questions. Wherever defaults are mentioned, pressing the ENTER key will use that value.

      This tutorial uses Seafile as the server name, but you can change it if necessary.

      Question 1
      
      What is the name of the server?
      It will be displayed on the client. 3 - 15 letters or digits
      [ server name ] Seafile
      

      Enter the domain name for this Seafile instance.

      Question 2
      
      What is the ip or domain of the server?.
      For example: www.mycompany.com, 192.168.1.101
      [ This server's ip or domain ] example.com
      

      For Question 3 press ENTER to accept the default value. If you have set up external storage, for example, using NFS or block storage, you will need to specify the path to that location here instead.

      Question 3
      
      Where do you want to put your seafile data?
      Please use a volume with enough free space
      [ default "/home/sammy/seafile/seafile-data" ]
      

      For Question 4 press ENTER to accept the default value.

      Question 4
      
      Which port do you want to use for the seafile fileserver?
      [ default "8082" ]
      

      The next prompt allows you to confirm the database configuration. You can create new databases or use existing databases for setup. For this tutorial you have created the necessary databases in Step 1, so select option 2 here.

      -------------------------------------------------------
      Please choose a way to initialize seafile databases:
      -------------------------------------------------------
      
      [1] Create new ccnet/seafile/seahub databases
      [2] Use existing ccnet/seafile/seahub databases
      
      [ 1 or 2 ] 2
      

      Questions 6–9 relate to the MariaDB database server. You will only need to provide the username and password of the mysql user that you created in Step 1. Press ENTER to accept the default values for host and port.

      
      What is the host of mysql server?
      
      [ default "localhost" ]
      
      What is the port of mysql server?
      
      [ default "3306" ]
      
      Which mysql user to use for seafile?
      
      [ mysql user for seafile ] sammy
      
      What is the password for mysql user "seafile"?
      
      [ password for seafile ] password
      

      After providing the password, the script will request the names of the Seafile databases. Use ccnet-db, seafile-db, and seahub-db for this tutorial. The script will then verify if there is a successful connection to the databases before proceeding to display a summary of the initial configuration.

      Enter the existing database name for ccnet:
      [ ccnet database ] ccnet-db
      
      verifying user "sammy" access to database ccnet-db ...  done
      
      Enter the existing database name for seafile:
      [ seafile database ] seafile-db
      
      verifying user "sammy" access to database seafile-db ...  done
      
      Enter the existing database name for seahub:
      [ seahub database ] seahub-db
      
      verifying user "sammy" access to database seahub-db ...  done
      
      ---------------------------------
      This is your configuration
      ---------------------------------
      
          server name:            Seafile
          server ip/domain:       example.com
      
          seafile data dir:       /home/sammy/seafile/seafile-data
          fileserver port:        8082
      
          database:               use existing
          ccnet database:         ccnet-db
          seafile database:       seafile-db
          seahub database:        seahub-db
          database user:          sammy
      
      --------------------------------
      Press ENTER to continue, or Ctrl-C to abort
      ---------------------------------
      

      Press ENTER to confirm.

      Output

      Generating ccnet configuration ... done Successly create configuration dir /home/sammy/seafile/ccnet. Generating seafile configuration ... done Generating seahub configuration ... ---------------------------------------- Now creating seahub database tables ... ---------------------------------------- creating seafile-server-latest symbolic link ... done ----------------------------------------------------------------- Your seafile server configuration has been finished successfully. ----------------------------------------------------------------- run seafile server: ./seafile.sh { start | stop | restart } run seahub server: ./seahub.sh { start <port> | stop | restart <port> } ----------------------------------------------------------------- If you are behind a firewall, remember to allow input/output of these tcp ports: ----------------------------------------------------------------- port of seafile fileserver: 8082 port of seahub: 8000 When problems occur, Refer to https://github.com/haiwen/seafile/wiki for information.

      As you will be running Seafile behind Apache, opening ports 8082 and 8000 in the firewall is not necessary, so you can ignore this part of the output.

      You have completed the initial configuration of the server. In the next step, you will configure the Apache web server before starting the Seafile services.

      Step 4 — Configuring the Apache Web Server

      In this step, you will configure the Apache web server to forward all requests to Seafile. Using Apache in this manner allows you to use a URL without a port number, enable HTTPS connections to Seafile, and make use of the caching functionality that Apache provides for better performance.

      To begin forwarding requests, you will need to enable the proxy_http module in the Apache configuration. This module provides features for proxying HTTP and HTTPS requests. The following command will enable the module:

      Note: The Apache rewrite and ssl modules are also required for this setup. You have already enabled these modules as part of configuring Let's Encrypt in the second Apache tutorial listed in the prerequisites section.

      Next, update the virtual host configuration of example.com to forward requests to the Seafile file server and to the Seahub web interface.

      Open the configuration file in a text editor:

      • sudo nano /etc/apache2/sites-enabled/example.com-le-ssl.conf

      The lines from ServerAdmin to SSLCertificateKeyFile are part of the initial Apache and Let's Encrypt configuration that you set up as part of the prerequisite. Add the highlighted content, beginning at Alias and ending with the ProxyPassReverse directive:

      /etc/apache2/sites-enabled/example.com-le-ssl.conf

      
      <IfModule mod_ssl.c>
      <VirtualHost *:443>
          ServerAdmin admin@example.com
          ServerName example.com
          ServerAlias www.example.com
          DocumentRoot /var/www/example.com/html
          ErrorLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/example.com-error.log
          CustomLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/example.com-access.log combined
      
          Include /etc/letsencrypt/options-ssl-apache.conf
          SSLCertificateFile /etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com/fullchain.pem
          SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com/privkey.pem
      
          Alias /media  /home/sammy/seafile/seafile-server-latest/seahub/media
          <Location /media>
              Require all granted
          </Location>
      
          # seafile fileserver
          ProxyPass /seafhttp http://127.0.0.1:8082
          ProxyPassReverse /seafhttp http://127.0.0.1:8082
          RewriteEngine On
          RewriteRule ^/seafhttp - [QSA,L]
      
          # seahub web interface
          SetEnvIf Authorization "(.*)" HTTP_AUTHORIZATION=$1
          ProxyPass / http://127.0.0.1:8000/
          ProxyPassReverse / http://127.0.0.1:8000/
      </VirtualHost>
      </IfModule>
      

      The Alias directive maps the URL path example.com/media to a local path in the file system that Seafile uses. The following Location directive enables access to content in this directory. The ProxyPass and ProxyPassReverse directives make Apache act as a reverse proxy for this host, forwarding requests to / and /seafhttp to the Seafile web interface and file server running on local host ports 8000 and 8082 respectively. The RewriteRule directive passes all requests to /seafhttp unchanged and stops processing further rules ([QSA,L]).

      Save and exit the file.

      Test if there are any syntax errors in the virtual host configuration:

      • sudo apache2ctl configtest

      If it reports Syntax OK, then there are no issues with your configuration. Restart Apache for the changes to take effect:

      • sudo systemctl restart apache2

      You have now configured Apache to act as a reverse proxy for the Seafile file server and Seahub. Next, you will update the URLs in Seafile's configuration before starting the services.

      Step 5 — Updating Seafile's Configuration and Starting Services

      As you are now using Apache to proxy all requests to Seafile, you will need to update the URLs in Seafile's configuration files in the conf directory using a text editor before you start the Seafile service.

      Open ccnet.conf in a text editor:

      • nano /home/sammy/seafile/conf/ccnet.conf

      Modify the SERVICE_URL setting in the file to point to the new HTTPS URL without the port number, for example:

      Update /home/sammy/seafile/conf/ccnet.conf

      SERVICE_URL = https://example.com
      

      Save and exit the file once you have added the content.

      Now open seahub_settings.py in a text editor:

      • nano /home/sammy/seafile/conf/seahub_settings.py

      You can now add a FILE_SERVER_ROOT setting in the file to specify the path where the file server is listening for file uploads and downloads:

      Update /home/sammy/seafile/conf/seahub_settings.py

      # -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
      SECRET_KEY = "..."
      FILE_SERVER_ROOT = 'https://example.com/seafhttp'
      # ...
      

      Save and exit seahub_settings.py.

      Now you can start the Seafile service and the Seahub interface:

      • cd /home/sammy/seafile/seafile-server-6.3.4
      • ./seafile.sh start
      • ./seahub.sh start

      As this is the first time you have started the Seahub service, it will prompt you to create an admin account. Enter a valid email address and a password for this admin user:

      Output

      What is the email for the admin account? [ admin email ] admin@example.com What is the password for the admin account? [ admin password ] password-here Enter the password again: [ admin password again ] password-here ---------------------------------------- Successfully created seafile admin ---------------------------------------- Seahub is started Done.

      Open https://example.com in a web browser and log in using your Seafile admin email address and password.

      Login screen of the Seafile web interface

      Once logged in successfully, you can access the admin interface or create new users.

      Now that you have verified the web interface is working correctly, you can enable these services to start automatically at system boot in the next step.

      Step 6 — Enabling the Seafile Server to Start at System Boot

      To enable the file server and the web interface to start automatically at boot, you can create the respective systemd service files and activate them.

      Create a systemd service file for the Seafile file server:

      • sudo nano /etc/systemd/system/seafile.service

      Add the following content to the file:

      Create /etc/systemd/system/seafile.service

      [Unit]
      Description=Seafile
      After=network.target mysql.service
      
      [Service]
      Type=forking
      ExecStart=/home/sammy/seafile/seafile-server-latest/seafile.sh start
      ExecStop=/home/sammy/seafile/seafile-server-latest/seafile.sh stop
      User=sammy
      Group=sammy
      
      [Install]
      WantedBy=multi-user.target
      

      Here, the ExectStart and ExecStop lines indicate the commands that run to start and stop the Seafile service. The service will run with sammy as the User and Group. The After line specifies that the Seafile service will start after the networking and MariaDB service has started.

      Save seafile.service and exit.

      Create a systemd service file for the Seahub web interface:

      • sudo nano /etc/systemd/system/seahub.service

      This is similar to the Seafile service. The only difference is that the web interface is started after the Seafile service. Add the following content to this file:

      Create /etc/systemd/system/seahub.service

      [Unit]
      Description=Seafile hub
      After=network.target seafile.service
      
      [Service]
      Type=forking
      ExecStart=/home/sammy/seafile/seafile-server-latest/seahub.sh start
      ExecStop=/home/sammy/seafile/seafile-server-latest/seahub.sh stop
      User=sammy
      Group=sammy
      
      [Install]
      WantedBy=multi-user.target
      

      Save seahub.service and exit.

      You can learn more about systemd unit files in the Understanding Systemd Units and Unit Files tutorial.

      Finally, to enable both the Seafile and Seahub services to start automatically at boot, run the following commands:

      • sudo systemctl enable seafile.service
      • sudo systemctl enable seahub.service

      When the server is rebooted, Seafile will start automatically.

      At this point, you have completed setting up the server, and can now test each of the services.

      Step 7 — Testing File Syncing and Sharing Functionality

      In this step, you will test the file synchronization and sharing functionality of the server you have set up and ensure they are working correctly. To do this, you will need to install the Seafile client program on a separate computer and/or a mobile device.

      Visit the download page on the Seafile website and follow the instructions to install the latest version of the program on your computer. Seafile clients are available for the various distributions of Linux (Ubuntu, Debian, Fedora, Centos/RHEL, Arch Linux), MacOS, and Windows. Mobile clients are available for Android and iPhone/iPad devices from the respective app stores.

      Once you have installed the Seafile client, you can test the file synchronization and sharing functionality.

      Open the Seafile client program on your computer or device. Accept the default location for the Seafile folder and click Next.

      In the next window, enter the server address, username, and password, then click Login.

      At the home page, right click on My Library and click Sync this library. Accept the default value for the location on your computer or device.

      Seafile client — Sync the default library

      Add a file, for example a document or a photo, into the My Library folder. After some time, the file will upload to the server. The following screenshot shows the file photo.jpg copied to the My Library folder.

      Add a file to the default library from the computer

      Now, log in to the web interface at https://example.com and verify that your file is present on the server.

      My Library page to verify file sync

      Click on Share next to the file to generate a download link for this file that you can share.

      You have verified that the file synchronization is working correctly and that you can use Seafile to sync and share files and folders from multiple devices.

      Conclusion

      In this tutorial you set up a private instance of a Seafile server. Now you can start using the server to synchronize files, add users and groups, and share files between them or with the public without relying on an external service.

      When a new release of the server is available, please consult the upgrade section of the manual for steps to perform an upgrade.



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