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      How To Create a Self-Signed SSL Certificate for Apache in Ubuntu 20.04


      Introduction

      TLS, or “transport layer security” — and its predecessor SSL — are protocols used to wrap normal traffic in a protected, encrypted wrapper. Using this technology, servers can safely send information to their clients without their messages being intercepted or read by an outside party.

      In this guide, we will show you how to create and use a self-signed SSL certificate with the Apache web server on Ubuntu 20.04.

      Note: A self-signed certificate will encrypt communication between your server and any clients. However, because it is not signed by any of the trusted certificate authorities included with web browsers and operating systems, users cannot use the certificate to validate the identity of your server automatically. As a result, your users will see a security error when visiting your site.

      Because of this limitation, self-signed certificates are not appropriate for a production environment serving the public. They are typically used for testing, or for securing non-critical services used by a single user or a small group of users that can establish trust in the certificate’s validity through alternate communication channels.

      For a more production-ready certificate solution, check out Let’s Encrypt, a free certificate authority. You can learn how to download and configure a Let’s Encrypt certificate in our How To Secure Apache with Let’s Encrypt on Ubuntu 20.04 tutorial.

      Prerequisites

      Before starting this tutorial, you’ll need the following:

      • Access to a Ubuntu 20.04 server with a non-root, sudo-enabled user. Our Initial Server Setup with Ubuntu 20.04 guide can show you how to create this account.
      • You will also need to have Apache installed. You can install Apache using apt. First, update the local package index to reflect the latest upstream changes:

      Then, install the apache2 package:

      And finally, if you have a ufw firewall set up, open up the http and https ports:

      • sudo ufw allow "Apache Full"

      After these steps are complete, be sure you are logged in as your non-root user and continue with the tutorial.

      Step 1 — Enabling mod_ssl

      Before we can use any SSL certificates, we first have to enable mod_ssl, an Apache module that provides support for SSL encryption.

      Enable mod_ssl with the a2enmod command:

      Restart Apache to activate the module:

      • sudo systemctl restart apache2

      The mod_ssl module is now enabled and ready for use.

      Step 2 – Creating the SSL Certificate

      Now that Apache is ready to use encryption, we can move on to generating a new SSL certificate. The certificate will store some basic information about your site, and will be accompanied by a key file that allows the server to securely handle encrypted data.

      We can create the SSL key and certificate files with the openssl command:

      • sudo openssl req -x509 -nodes -days 365 -newkey rsa:2048 -keyout /etc/ssl/private/apache-selfsigned.key -out /etc/ssl/certs/apache-selfsigned.crt

      After you enter the command, you will be taken to a prompt where you can enter information about your website. Before we go over that, let’s take a look at what is happening in the command we are issuing:

      • openssl: This is the command line tool for creating and managing OpenSSL certificates, keys, and other files.
      • req -x509: This specifies that we want to use X.509 certificate signing request (CSR) management. X.509 is a public key infrastructure standard that SSL and TLS adhere to for key and certificate management.
      • -nodes: This tells OpenSSL to skip the option to secure our certificate with a passphrase. We need Apache to be able to read the file, without user intervention, when the server starts up. A passphrase would prevent this from happening, since we would have to enter it after every restart.
      • -days 365: This option sets the length of time that the certificate will be considered valid. We set it for one year here. Many modern browsers will reject any certificates that are valid for longer than one year.
      • -newkey rsa:2048: This specifies that we want to generate a new certificate and a new key at the same time. We did not create the key that is required to sign the certificate in a previous step, so we need to create it along with the certificate. The rsa:2048 portion tells it to make an RSA key that is 2048 bits long.
      • -keyout: This line tells OpenSSL where to place the generated private key file that we are creating.
      • -out: This tells OpenSSL where to place the certificate that we are creating.

      Fill out the prompts appropriately. The most important line is the one that requests the Common Name. You need to enter either the hostname you’ll use to access the server by, or the public IP of the server. It’s important that this field matches whatever you’ll put into your browser’s address bar to access the site, as a mismatch will cause more security errors.

      The full list of prompts will look something like this:

      Country Name (2 letter code) [XX]:US
      State or Province Name (full name) []:Example
      Locality Name (eg, city) [Default City]:Example 
      Organization Name (eg, company) [Default Company Ltd]:Example Inc
      Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:Example Dept
      Common Name (eg, your name or your server's hostname) []:your_domain_or_ip
      Email Address []:webmaster@example.com
      

      Both of the files you created will be placed in the appropriate subdirectories under /etc/ssl.

      Next we will update our Apache configuration to use the new certificate and key.

      Step 3 – Configuring Apache to Use SSL

      Now that we have our self-signed certificate and key available, we need to update our Apache configuration to use them. On Ubuntu, you can place new Apache configuration files (they must end in .conf) into /etc/apache2/sites-available/and they will be loaded the next time the Apache process is reloaded or restarted.

      For this tutorial we will create a new minimal configuration file. (If you already have an Apache <Virtualhost> set up and just need to add SSL to it, you will likely need to copy over the configuration lines that start with SSL, and switch the VirtualHost port from 80 to 443. We will take care of port 80 in the next step.)

      Open a new file in the /etc/apache2/sites-available directory:

      • sudo nano /etc/apache2/sites-available/your_domain_or_ip.conf

      Paste in the following minimal VirtualHost configuration:

      /etc/apache2/sites-available/your_domain_or_ip.conf

      <VirtualHost *:443>
         ServerName your_domain_or_ip
         DocumentRoot /var/www/your_domain_or_ip
      
         SSLEngine on
         SSLCertificateFile /etc/ssl/certs/apache-selfsigned.crt
         SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/ssl/private/apache-selfsigned.key
      </VirtualHost>
      
      

      Be sure to update the ServerName line to however you intend to address your server. This can be a hostname, full domain name, or an IP address. Make sure whatever you choose matches the Common Name you chose when making the certificate.

      The remaining lines specify a DocumentRoot directory to serve files from, and the SSL options needed to point Apache to our newly-created certificate and key.

      Now let’s create our DocumentRoot and put an HTML file in it just for testing purposes:

      • sudo mkdir /var/www/your_domain_or_ip

      Open a new index.html file with your text editor:

      • sudo nano /var/www/your_domain_or_ip/index.html

      Paste the following into the blank file:

      /var/www/your_domain_or_ip/index.html

      <h1>it worked!</h1>
      

      This is not a full HTML file, of course, but browsers are lenient and it will be enough to verify our configuration.

      Save and close the file
      Next, we need to enable the configuration file with the a2ensite tool:

      • sudo a2ensite your_domain_or_ip.conf

      Next, let’s test for configuration errors:

      • sudo apache2ctl configtest

      If everything is successful, you will get a result that looks like this:

      Output

      AH00558: apache2: Could not reliably determine the server's fully qualified domain name, using 127.0.1.1. Set the 'ServerName' directive globally to suppress this message Syntax OK

      The first line is a message telling you that the ServerName directive is not set globally. If you want to get rid of that message, you can set ServerName to your server’s domain name or IP address in /etc/apache2/apache2.conf. This is optional as the message will do no harm.

      If your output has Syntax OK in it, your configuration file has no syntax errors. We can safely reload Apache to implement our changes:

      • sudo systemctl reload apache2

      Now load your site in a browser, being sure to use https:// at the beginning.

      You should see an error. This is normal for a self-signed certificate! The browser is warning you that it can’t verify the identity of the server, because our certificate is not signed by any of its known certificate authorities. For testing purposes and personal use this can be fine. You should be able to click through to advanced or more information and choose to proceed.

      After you do so, your browser will load the it worked! message.

      Note: if your browser doesn’t connect at all to the server, make sure your connection isn’t being blocked by a firewall. If you are using ufw, the following commands will open ports 80 and 443:

      • sudo ufw allow "Apache Full"

      Next we will add another VirtualHost section to our configuration to serve plain HTTP requests and redirect them to HTTPS.

      Step 4 — Redirecting HTTP to HTTPS

      Currently, our configuration will only respond to HTTPS requests on port 443. It is good practice to also respond on port 80, even if you want to force all traffic to be encrypted. Let’s set up a VirtualHost to respond to these unencrypted requests and redirect them to HTTPS.

      Open the same Apache configuration file we started in previous steps:

      • sudo nano /etc/apache2/sites-available/your_domain_or_ip.conf

      At the bottom, create another VirtualHost block to match requests on port 80. Use the ServerName directive to again match your domain name or IP address. Then, use Redirect to match any requests and send them to the SSL VirtualHost. Make sure to include the trailing slash:

      /etc/apache2/sites-available/your_domain_or_ip.conf

      <VirtualHost *:80>
          ServerName your_domain_or_ip
          Redirect / https://your_domain_or_ip/
      </VirtualHost>
      

      Save and close this file when you are finished, then test your configuration syntax again, and reload Apache:

      • sudo apachectl configtest
      • sudo systemctl reload apache2

      You can test the new redirect functionality by visiting your site with plain http:// in front of the address. You should be redirected to https:// automatically.

      Conclusion

      You have now configured Apache to serve encrypted requests using a self-signed SSL certificate, and to redirect unencrypted HTTP requests to HTTPS.

      If you are planning on using SSL for a public website, you should look into purchasing a domain name and using a widely supported certificate authority such as Let’s Encrypt.

      For more information on using Let’s Encrypt with Apache, please read our How To Secure Apache with Let’s Encrypt on Ubuntu 20.04 tutorial.



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      How To Configure Jenkins with SSL Using an Nginx Reverse Proxy on Ubuntu 20.04


      Not using Ubuntu 20.04?


      Choose a different version or distribution.

      Introduction

      By default, Jenkins comes with its own built-in Winstone web server listening on port 8080, which is convenient for getting started. It’s also a good idea, however, to secure Jenkins with SSL to protect passwords and sensitive data transmitted through the web interface.

      In this tutorial, you will configure Nginx as a reverse proxy to direct client requests to Jenkins.

      Prerequisites

      To begin, you’ll need the following:

      Step 1 — Configuring Nginx

      In the prerequisite tutorial How to Secure Nginx with Let’s Encrypt on Ubuntu 20.04, you configured Nginx to use SSL in the /etc/nginx/sites-available/example.com file. Open this file to add your reverse proxy settings:

      • sudo nano /etc/nginx/sites-available/example.com

      In the server block with the SSL configuration settings, add Jenkins-specific access and error logs:

      /etc/nginx/sites-available/example.com

      . . . 
      server {
              . . .
              # SSL Configuration
              #
              listen [::]:443 ssl ipv6only=on; # managed by Certbot
              listen 443 ssl; # managed by Certbot
              access_log            /var/log/nginx/jenkins.access.log;
              error_log             /var/log/nginx/jenkins.error.log;
              . . .
              }
      

      Next let’s configure the proxy settings. Since we’re sending all requests to Jenkins, we’ll comment out the default try_files line, which would otherwise return a 404 error before the request reaches Jenkins:

      /etc/nginx/sites-available/example.com

      . . .
                 location / {
                      # First attempt to serve request as file, then
                      # as directory, then fall back to displaying a 404.
                      # try_files $uri $uri/ =404;        }
      . . . 
      

      Let’s now add the proxy settings, which include:

      • proxy_params: The /etc/nginx/proxy_params file is supplied by Nginx and ensures that important information, including the hostname, the protocol of the client request, and the client IP address, is retained and available in the log files.
      • proxy_pass: This sets the protocol and address of the proxied server, which in this case will be the Jenkins server accessed via localhost on port 8080.
      • proxy_read_timeout: This enables an increase from Nginx’s 60 second default to the Jenkins-recommended 90 second value.
      • proxy_redirect: This ensures that responses are correctly rewritten to include the proper host name.

      Be sure to substitute your SSL-secured domain name for example.com in the proxy_redirect line below:

      /etc/nginx/sites-available/example.com

      Location /  
      . . .
                 location / {
                      # First attempt to serve request as file, then
                      # as directory, then fall back to displaying a 404.
                      # try_files $uri $uri/ =404;
                      include /etc/nginx/proxy_params;
                      proxy_pass          http://localhost:8080;
                      proxy_read_timeout  90s;
                      # Fix potential "It appears that your reverse proxy setup is broken" error.
                      proxy_redirect      http://localhost:8080 https://example.com;
      

      Once you’ve made these changes, save the file and exit the editor. We’ll hold off on restarting Nginx until after we’ve configured Jenkins, but we can test our configuration now:

      If all is well, the command will return:

      Output

      nginx: the configuration file /etc/nginx/nginx.conf syntax is ok nginx: configuration file /etc/nginx/nginx.conf test is successful

      If not, fix any reported errors until the test passes.

      Note:
      If you misconfigure the proxy_pass (by adding a trailing slash, for example), you will get something similar to the following in your Jenkins Configuration page.

      Jenkins error: Reverse proxy set up is broken

      If you see this error, double-check your proxy_pass and proxy_redirect settings in the Nginx configuration.

      Step 2 — Configuring Jenkins

      For Jenkins to work with Nginx, you will need to update the Jenkins configuration so that the Jenkins server listens only on the localhost interface rather than on all interfaces (0.0.0.0). If Jenkins listens on all interfaces, it’s potentially accessible on its original, unencrypted port (8080).

      Let’s modify the /etc/default/jenkins configuration file to make these adjustments:

      • sudo nano /etc/default/jenkins

      Locate the JENKINS_ARGS line and add --httpListenAddress=127.0.0.1 to the existing arguments:

      /etc/default/jenkins

      . . .
      JENKINS_ARGS="--webroot=/var/cache/$NAME/war --httpPort=$HTTP_PORT --httpListenAddress=127.0.0.1"
      

      Save and exit the file.

      To use the new configuration settings, restart Jenkins:

      • sudo systemctl restart jenkins

      Since systemctl doesn’t display output, check the status:

      • sudo systemctl status jenkins

      You should see the active (exited) status in the Active line:

      Output

      ● jenkins.service - LSB: Start Jenkins at boot time Loaded: loaded (/etc/init.d/jenkins; generated) Active: active (exited) since Mon 2018-07-09 20:26:25 UTC; 11s ago Docs: man:systemd-sysv-generator(8) Process: 29766 ExecStop=/etc/init.d/jenkins stop (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS) Process: 29812 ExecStart=/etc/init.d/jenkins start (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)

      Restart Nginx:

      • sudo systemctl restart nginx

      Check the status:

      • sudo systemctl status nginx

      Output

      ● nginx.service - A high performance web server and a reverse proxy server Loaded: loaded (/lib/systemd/system/nginx.service; enabled; vendor preset: enabled) Active: active (running) since Mon 2018-07-09 20:27:23 UTC; 31s ago Docs: man:nginx(8) Process: 29951 ExecStop=/sbin/start-stop-daemon --quiet --stop --retry QUIT/5 --pidfile /run/nginx.pid (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS) Process: 29963 ExecStart=/usr/sbin/nginx -g daemon on; master_process on; (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS) Process: 29952 ExecStartPre=/usr/sbin/nginx -t -q -g daemon on; master_process on; (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS) Main PID: 29967 (nginx)

      With both servers restarted, you should be able to visit the domain using either HTTP or HTTPS. HTTP requests will be redirected automatically to HTTPS, and the Jenkins site will be served securely.

      Step 3 — Testing the Configuration

      Now that you have enabled encryption, you can test the configuration by resetting the administrative password. Let’s start by visiting the site via HTTP to verify that you can reach Jenkins and are redirected to HTTPS.

      In your web browser, enter http://example.com, substituting your domain for example.com. After you press ENTER, the URL should start with https and the location bar should indicate that the connection is secure.

      You can enter the administrative username you created in How To Install Jenkins on Ubuntu 20.04 in the User field, and the password that you selected in the Password field.

      Once logged in, you can change the password to be sure it’s secure.

      Click on your username in the upper-right-hand corner of the screen. On the main profile page, select Configure from the list on the left side of the page:

      Navigate to Jenkins password page

      This will take you to a new page, where you can enter and confirm a new password:

      Jenkins create password page

      Confirm the new password by clicking Save. You can now use the Jenkins web interface securely.

      Conclusion

      In this tutorial, you configured Nginx as a reverse proxy to Jenkins’ built-in web server to secure your credentials and other information transmitted via the web interface. Now that Jenkins is secure, you can learn how to set up a continuous integration pipeline to automatically test code changes. Other resources to consider if you are new to Jenkins are the Jenkins project’s “Creating your first Pipeline” tutorial or the library of community-contributed plugins.



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      How To Create a Self-Signed SSL Certificate for Apache on CentOS 8


      Not using CentOS 8?


      Choose a different version or distribution.

      Introduction

      TLS, or “transport layer security” — and its predecessor SSL — are protocols used to wrap normal traffic in a protected, encrypted wrapper. Using this technology, servers can safely send information to their clients without their messages being intercepted or read by an outside party.

      In this guide, we will show you how to create and use a self-signed SSL certificate with the Apache web server on a CentOS 8 machine.

      Note: A self-signed certificate will encrypt communication between your server and its clients. However, because it is not signed by any of the trusted certificate authorities included with web browsers and operating systems, users cannot use the certificate to automatically validate the identity of your server. As a result, your users will see a security error when visiting your site.

      Because of this limitation, self-signed certificates are not appropriate for a production environment serving the public. They are typically used for testing, or for securing non-critical services used by a single user or a small group of users that can establish trust in the certificate’s validity through alternate communication channels.

      For a more production-ready certificate solution, check out Let’s Encrypt, a free certificate authority. You can learn how to download and configure a Let’s Encrypt certificate in our How To Secure Apache with Let’s Encrypt on CentOS 8 tutorial.

      Prerequisites

      Before starting this tutorial, you’ll need the following:

      • Access to a CentOS 8 server with a non-root, sudo-enabled user. Our Initial Server Setup with CentOS 8 guide can show you how to create this account.
      • You will also need to have Apache installed. You can install Apache using dnf:

        Enable Apache and start it using systemctl:

        • sudo systemctl enable httpd
        • sudo systemctl start httpd

        And finally, if you have a firewalld firewall set up, open up the http and https ports:

        • sudo firewall-cmd --permanent --add-service=http
        • sudo firewall-cmd --permanent --add-service=https
        • sudo firewall-cmd --reload

      After these steps are complete, be sure you are logged in as your non-root user and continue with the tutorial.

      Step 1 — Installing mod_ssl

      We first need to install mod_ssl, an Apache module that provides support for SSL encryption.

      Install mod_ssl with the dnf command:

      Because of a packaging bug, we need to restart Apache once to properly generate the default SSL certificate and key, otherwise we’ll get an error reading '/etc/pki/tls/certs/localhost.crt' does not exist or is empty.

      • sudo systemctl restart httpd

      The mod_ssl module is now enabled and ready for use.

      Step 2 — Creating the SSL Certificate

      Now that Apache is ready to use encryption, we can move on to generating a new SSL certificate. The certificate will store some basic information about your site, and will be accompanied by a key file that allows the server to securely handle encrypted data.

      We can create the SSL key and certificate files with the openssl command:

      • sudo openssl req -x509 -nodes -days 365 -newkey rsa:2048 -keyout /etc/pki/tls/private/apache-selfsigned.key -out /etc/pki/tls/certs/apache-selfsigned.crt

      After you enter the command, you will be taken to a prompt where you can enter information about your website. Before we go over that, let’s take a look at what is happening in the command we are issuing:

      • openssl: This is the command line tool for creating and managing OpenSSL certificates, keys, and other files.
      • req -x509: This specifies that we want to use X.509 certificate signing request (CSR) management. X.509 is a public key infrastructure standard that SSL and TLS adhere to for key and certificate management.
      • -nodes: This tells OpenSSL to skip the option to secure our certificate with a passphrase. We need Apache to be able to read the file, without user intervention, when the server starts up. A passphrase would prevent this from happening, since we would have to enter it after every restart.
      • -days 365: This option sets the length of time that the certificate will be considered valid. We set it for one year here. Many modern browsers will reject any certificates that are valid for longer than one year.
      • -newkey rsa:2048: This specifies that we want to generate a new certificate and a new key at the same time. We did not create the key that is required to sign the certificate in a previous step, so we need to create it along with the certificate. The rsa:2048 portion tells it to make an RSA key that is 2048 bits long.
      • -keyout: This line tells OpenSSL where to place the generated private key file that we are creating.
      • -out: This tells OpenSSL where to place the certificate that we are creating.

      Fill out the prompts appropriately. The most important line is the one that requests the Common Name. You need to enter either the hostname you’ll use to access the server by, or the public IP of the server. It’s important that this field matches whatever you’ll put into your browser’s address bar to access the site, as a mismatch will cause more security errors.

      The full list of prompts will look something like this:

      Country Name (2 letter code) [XX]:US
      State or Province Name (full name) []:Example
      Locality Name (eg, city) [Default City]:Example 
      Organization Name (eg, company) [Default Company Ltd]:Example Inc
      Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:Example Dept
      Common Name (eg, your name or your server's hostname) []:your_domain_or_ip
      Email Address []:webmaster@example.com
      

      Both of the files you created will be placed in the appropriate subdirectories of the /etc/pki/tls directory. This is a standard directory provided by CentOS for this purpose.

      Next we will update our Apache configuration to use the new certificate and key.

      Step 3 — Configuring Apache to Use SSL

      Now that we have our self-signed certificate and key available, we need to update our Apache configuration to use them. On CentOS, you can place new Apache configuration files (they must end in .conf) into /etc/httpd/conf.d and they will be loaded the next time the Apache process is reloaded or restarted.

      For this tutorial we will create a new minimal configuration file. If you already have an Apache <Virtualhost> set up and just need to add SSL to it, you will likely need to copy over the configuration lines that start with SSL, and switch the VirtualHost port from 80 to 443. We will take care of port 80 in the next step.

      Open a new file in the /etc/httpd/conf.d directory:

      • sudo vi /etc/httpd/conf.d/your_domain_or_ip.conf

      Paste in the following minimal VirtualHost configuration:

      /etc/httpd/conf.d/your_domain_or_ip.conf

      <VirtualHost *:443>
          ServerName your_domain_or_ip
          DocumentRoot /var/www/ssl-test
          SSLEngine on
          SSLCertificateFile /etc/pki/tls/certs/apache-selfsigned.crt
          SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/pki/tls/private/apache-selfsigned.key
      </VirtualHost>
      

      Be sure to update the ServerName line to however you intend to address your server. This can be a hostname, full domain name, or an IP address. Make sure whatever you choose matches the Common Name you chose when making the certificate.

      The remaining lines specify a DocumentRoot directory to serve files from, and the SSL options needed to point Apache to our newly-created certificate and key.

      Now let’s create our DocumentRoot and put an HTML file in it just for testing purposes:

      • sudo mkdir /var/www/ssl-test

      Open a new index.html file with your text editor:

      • sudo vi /var/www/ssl-test/index.html

      Paste the following into the blank file:

      /var/www/ssl-test/index.html

      <h1>it worked!</h1>
      

      This is not a full HTML file, of course, but browsers are lenient and it will be enough to verify our configuration.

      Save and close the file, then check your Apache configuration for syntax errors by typing:

      • sudo apachectl configtest

      You may see some warnings, but as long as the output ends with Syntax OK, you are safe to continue. If this is not part of your output, check the syntax of your files and try again.

      When all is well, reload Apache to pick up the configuration changes:

      • sudo systemctl reload httpd

      Now load your site in a browser, being sure to use https:// at the beginning.

      You should see an error. This is normal for a self-signed certificate! The browser is warning you that it can’t verify the identity of the server, because our certificate is not signed by any of the browser’s known certificate authorities. For testing purposes and personal use this can be fine. You should be able to click through to advanced or more information and choose to proceed.

      After you do so, your browser will load the it worked! message.

      Note: if your browser doesn’t connect at all to the server, make sure your connection isn’t being blocked by a firewall. If you are using firewalld, the following commands will open ports 80 and 443:

      • sudo firewall-cmd --permanent --add-service=http
      • sudo firewall-cmd --permanent --add-service=https
      • sudo firewall-cmd --reload

      Next we will add another VirtualHost section to our configuration to serve plain HTTP requests and redirect them to HTTPS.

      Step 4 — Redirecting HTTP to HTTPS

      Currently, our configuration will only respond to HTTPS requests on port 443. It is good practice to also respond on port 80, even if you want to force all traffic to be encrypted. Let’s set up a VirtualHost to respond to these unencrypted requests and redirect them to HTTPS.

      Open the same Apache configuration file we started in previous steps:

      • sudo vi /etc/httpd/conf.d/your_domain_or_ip.conf

      At the bottom, create another VirtualHost block to match requests on port 80. Use the ServerName directive to again match your domain name or IP address. Then, use Redirect to match any requests and send them to the SSL VirtualHost. Make sure to include the trailing slash:

      /etc/httpd/conf.d/your_domain_or_ip.conf

      <VirtualHost *:80>
          ServerName your_domain_or_ip
          Redirect / https://your_domain_or_ip/
      </VirtualHost>
      

      Save and close this file when you are finished, then test your configuration syntax again, and reload Apache:

      • sudo apachectl configtest
      • sudo systemctl reload httpd

      You can test the new redirect functionality by visiting your site with plain http:// in front of the address. You should be redirected to https:// automatically.

      Conclusion

      You have now configured Apache to serve encrypted requests using a self-signed SSL certificate, and to redirect unecrypted HTTP requests to HTTPS.

      If you are planning on using SSL for a public website, you should look into purchasing a domain name and using a widely supported certificate authority such as Let’s Encrypt.

      For more information on using Let’s Encrypt with Apache, please read our How To Secure Apache with Let’s Encrypt on CentOS 8 tutorial.



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