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      Storage

      What is Block Storage?


      A block storage service functions as a hard drive provided over the network. Developers can use block storage services to store files, combine multiple devices into a RAID array, or configure a database to write directly to the block storage device. Block storage offers a different set of capacities than object storage, which allows developers to store unstructured data using an HTTP API. Developers working on complex applications often need to take advantage of both options.

      For more resources about block storage, please visit:

      A complete list of our block storage-related tutorials, questions, and other educational resources can be found on our block storage tag page.



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      How to Move Objects Between Buckets in Linode's Object Storage


      Updated by Linode

      Contributed by
      Linode

      Marquee image for How to Move Objects Between Buckets in Linode's Object Storage

      Note

      Linode’s Object Storage is a globally-available, S3-compatible method for storing and accessing data. With Object Storage more widely available, you may have buckets in multiple locations, this guide shows you how to move objects between buckets quickly and easily.

      In this guide you learn how to move objects between buckets using:

      Before You Begin

      To learn how to enable Object Storage, see the How to Use Object Storage guide.

      Object Storage is similar to a subscription service. After it is enabled, you are billed at the flat rate regardless of whether or not there are active buckets on your account. Cancel Object Storage to stop billing for this flat rate.

      In all Object Storage URLs the cluster where your bucket is hosted is a part of the URL string.

      Note

      A cluster is defined as all buckets hosted by a unique URL; for example: us-east-1.linodeobjects.com, ap-south-1.linodeobjects.com, or eu-central-1.linodeobjects.com.

      Cyberduck Graphical Interface

      The easiest way to move objects between buckets is using a Graphical User Interface (GUI) such as Cyberduck. Using a GUI, you can simply drag and drop objects between buckets.

      Transfer Between Buckets in the Same Cluster

      To transfer objects within the same cluster on the same account, you need to open only one Cyberduck window.

      1. Open Cyberduck and make a connection to access your buckets as described in How to Use Linode Object Storage.

      2. Expand the two buckets you want to transfer objects between by clicking the down arrow to the left of the folders.

      3. Locate the object you want to transfer.

      4. Drag the item from the source location to the destination.

        Drag a File to Move

      5. Select multiple items or folders and drag the group to the destination.

        Drag Multiple Files to Move

      Transfer Between Buckets in Different Clusters

      To transfer objects between two clusters, whether they are on the same account or not, you need to open two separate Cyberduck widows so that you can make two separate connections.

      Note

      Transferring objects between two different connections creates a copy of the object(s). If you don’t want the original files in the source bucket, you need to delete them after the transfer.

      1. Open Cyberduck, click the File menu and select New Browser. A second interface window appears where you can create another connection.

      2. In the first window, connect to the source bucket and locate the object you want to copy.

      3. In the second window, connect to the destination bucket and navigate to the location you want to place a copy of the object.

      4. Drag the object from the source to the destination.

        Select Objects to Move Between Cyberduck Windows

      Note

      You can easily copy multiple items, folders, or buckets by selecting everything you want to move and dragging the group. If you move a bucket to another bucket, it creates a folder with that bucket name.

      Cyberduck CLI

      You can also use the Cyberduck CLI, duck, to move objects from one bucket to another using the command line. The file transfer tool duck, is available for Linux, macOS, and Windows. To transfer using duck, you need the access keys that you generated for the source and destination buckets.

      1. Install duck using the instructions for your platform.

      2. Use the access keys and bucket names in the following command to move objects between buckets:

        duck --copy s3://[email protected]$bucket_source/source_object_file_name s3://[email protected]$bucket_destination/destination_object_file_name
        

        After issuing this command, you may be asked for login information.

      Note

      The bucket source and destination names are the fully qualified names including the cluster name, for example: us-east-1.linodeobjects.com/example_bucket.

      More Information

      You may wish to consult the following resources for additional information on this topic. While these are provided in the hope that they will be useful, please note that we cannot vouch for the accuracy or timeliness of externally hosted materials.

      This guide is published under a CC BY-ND 4.0 license.



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      How to Configure Nextcloud to use Linode Object Storage as an External Storage Mount


      Updated by Linode

      Contributed by
      Linode

      Marquee image for How to Configure Nextcloud to use Linode Object Storage as an External Storage Mount

      Nextcloud is an open source solution for file hosting and sharing. With Nextcloud, you can synchronize files from a local computer to the Linode server and share them with collaborators. Nextcloud’s customizable security features and intuitive user interface keeps the files safe and easy to manage.

      You can configure Nextcloud to enable external storage devices and services, like Linode Object Storage, to use as a secondary place to store files. Using Linode Object Storage to store files prevents you from running out of storage space limited by the Linode’s plan size. When using Nextcloud’s graphical user interface (GUI) to manage files, the external storage device shows up just like any other folder.

      Before You Begin

      1. Deploy a Nextcloud server instance. You can use the Linode Nextcloud One-Click App for an easy and quick deployment.

      2. Enable the Object Storage service on your Linode account.

      3. Generate Object Storage access keys.

      4. If you are not familiar with Linode Object Storage, review the How to Use Linode Object Storage guide.

      In This Guide

      Nextcloud Configurations

      Enable the External Storage App

      In this section you enable the External Storage Support Nextcloud app in order to use external storage sources.

      Note

      You must belong to the admin user group in order to install the External storage support app.

      1. Log into your Nextcloud instance.

      2. Click the user icon (or cog wheel) in the top navigation menu and select Apps.

        Access Nextcloud App settings.

      3. Click Files to access all Nextcloud apps related to file management, in the left-hand navigation menu.

        Access the Files App settings.

      4. Use the search field in the top navigation to narrow down the visible apps. You can enter external as your search term.

      5. Viewing the External storage support app, click the Enable button in order to install it to the Nextcloud instance.

        Enable the external storage support app.

      Create a New Linode Object Storage External Storage Mount

      After enabling the External Storage Support app, you are now ready to add a new external storage mount. You configure the new external storage mount to use the Linode Object Storage service.

      Note

      1. Click the user icon (or cog wheel) in the top navigation menu and select Settings.

        Access Nextcloud settings.

      2. In the left-hand navigation menu, under the Administration heading, click External Storages. The External Storages administration page appears.

        Access external storage configurations.

      3. In the Folder name text entry box, provide a name for the external storage directory.

      4. From the External Storage dropdown menu, select the Amazon S3 option.

        Note

        Linode Object Storage is S3-compatible. Nextcloud connects to Amazon’s Object Storage service by default, however, in the next step you override the default behavior to use Linode Object Storage hosts instead.

      5. Select Access Key from the Authentication dropdown menu.

      6. Under the Configuration heading, provide the following configurations:

        Configuration Description
        Bucket The name to assign to the Object Storage bucket. If this bucket name already exists in the data center region you select, an error occurs.
        Hostname The hostname used for the Object Storage region where the bucket is be stored. Refer to the Linode Object Storage Region and Hostname Values note located below this table for available hostname values.
        Port The port number to use to access the Object Storage host. This value must be 443.
        Region The data center region to store your Object Storage bucket. Refer to the Linode Object Storage Region and Hostname Values note located below this table for available data center region IDs.
        Enable SSL A configuration to enable secure sockets layer (SSL). This configuration must be enabled.
        Enable Path Style This configuration changes the default path format used by Nextcloud to access the Object Storage bucket. Do not enable this configuration.
        Legacy (v2) Authentication This configuration enables version 2 authentication to the Object Storage service. By default Nextcloud uses version 4 authentication that is compatible with Linode Object Storage. Do not enable this configuration.
        Access Key The value of the Access Key you created using the Linode Cloud Manager.
        Secret Key The value of the Secret Key you created using the Linode Cloud Manager.



        Linode Object Storage Region and Hostname Values

        Region Region ID Hostname
        Newark, NJ, USA us-east-1 us-east-1.linodeobjects.com
        Frankfurt, Germany eu-central-1 eu-central-1.linodeobjects.com
        Singapore, Singapore ap-south-1 ap-south-1.linodeobjects.com
      7. In the Available for text entry box, enter the group name(s) you would like to give access to the Linode Object Storage external storage. To learn more about user and group permissions related to external storage, see Nextcloud’s documentation.

      8. Click the check icon to save the configurations. If all your configurations are valid, you should see a green check box appear next to the external storage entry.

        Save your external storage configurations.

      9. Using the top navigation menu, click the Files menu item. The external storage folder appears in the list of folders.

        Access all your Nextcloud files.

      10. Click the external storage folder to view its contents. You should not see anything stored there yet.

      11. Test out the external storage mount by adding a file to the folder. Click the + button in the top breadcrumbs area of the screen and select Upload file.

        Upload a file to your Linode Object Storage bucket.

      12. The local file browser appears. Select a test file to add to the external storage folder and click Open. The file appears in the folder.

        Your should see your uploaded file appear in the folder.

        Note

      More Information

      You may wish to consult the following resources for additional information on this topic. While these are provided in the hope that they will be useful, please note that we cannot vouch for the accuracy or timeliness of externally hosted materials.

      This guide is published under a CC BY-ND 4.0 license.



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