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      How to Install WordPress with LAMP on Debian 10


      Introduction

      WordPress is the most popular CMS (content management system) on the internet. It allows you to easily set up flexible blogs and websites on top of a MariaDB backend with PHP processing. WordPress has seen incredible adoption and is a great choice for getting a website up and running quickly. After setup, almost all administration can be done through the web frontend.

      In this guide, we’ll focus on getting a WordPress instance set up on a LAMP stack (Linux, Apache, MariaDB, and PHP) on a Debian 10 server.

      Prerequisites

      In order to complete this tutorial, you will need access to a Debian 10 server.

      You will need to perform the following tasks before you can start this guide:

      • Create a sudo user on your server: We will be completing the steps in this guide using a non-root user with sudo privileges. You can create a user with sudo privileges by following our Debian 10 initial server setup guide.
      • Install a LAMP stack: WordPress will need a web server, a database, and PHP in order to correctly function. Setting up a LAMP stack (Linux, Apache, MariaDB, and PHP) fulfills all of these requirements. Follow this guide to install and configure this software.
      • Secure your site with SSL: WordPress serves dynamic content and handles user authentication and authorization. TLS/SSL is the technology that allows you to encrypt the traffic from your site so that your connection is secure. The way you set up SSL will depend on whether you have a domain name for your site.
        • If you have a domain name… the easiest way to secure your site is with Let’s Encrypt, which provides free, trusted certificates. Follow our Let’s Encrypt guide for Apache to set this up.
        • If you do not have a domain… and you are just using this configuration for testing or personal use, you can use a self-signed certificate instead. This provides the same type of encryption, but without the domain validation. Follow our self-signed SSL guide for Apache to get set up.

      When you are finished with the setup steps, log in to your server as your sudo user and continue below.

      Step 1 — Creating a MariaDB Database and User for WordPress

      The first step that we will take is a preparatory one. WordPress requires a MySQL-based database to store and manage site and user information. We have MariaDB — a drop-in replacement for MySQL — installed already, but we need to make a database and a user for WordPress to use.

      To get started, open up the MariaDB prompt as the root account:

      Note: If you set up another account with administrative privileges when you installed and set up MariaDB, you can also log in as that user. You’ll need to do so with the following command:

      After issuing this command, MariaDB will prompt you for the password you set for that account.

      Begin by creating a new database that WordPress will control. You can call this whatever you would like but, to keep it simple for this guide, we will name it wordpress.

      Create the database for WordPress by typing:

      • CREATE DATABASE wordpress DEFAULT CHARACTER SET utf8 COLLATE utf8_unicode_ci;

      Note that every MySQL statement must end in a semi-colon (;). Check to make sure this is present if you are running into any issues.

      Next, create a separate MySQL user account that we will use exclusively to operate on our new database. Creating single-function databases and accounts is a good idea from a management and security standpoint. We will use the name wordpress_user in this guide, but feel free to change this if you'd like.

      Create this account, set a password, and grant the user access to the database you just created with the following command. Remember to choose a strong password for your database user:

      • GRANT ALL ON wordpress.* TO 'wordpress_user'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'password';

      You now have a database and user account, each made specifically for WordPress. Run the following command to reload the grant tables so that the current instance of MariaDB knows about the changes you've made:

      Exit out of MariaDB by typing:

      Now that you’ve configured the database and user that will be used by WordPress, you can move on to installing some PHP-related packages used by the CMS.

      Step 2 — Installing Additional PHP Extensions

      When setting up our LAMP stack, we only required a very minimal set of extensions in order to get PHP to communicate with MariaDB. WordPress and many of its plugins leverage additional PHP extensions.

      Download and install some of the most popular PHP extensions for use with WordPress by typing:

      • sudo apt update
      • sudo apt install php-curl php-gd php-mbstring php-xml php-xmlrpc php-soap php-intl php-zip

      Note: Each WordPress plugin has its own set of requirements. Some may require additional PHP packages to be installed. Check your plugin documentation to find its PHP requirements. If they are available, they can be installed with apt as demonstrated above.

      We will restart Apache to load these new extensions in the next section. If you are returning here to install additional plugins, you can restart Apache now by typing:

      • sudo systemctl restart apache2

      At this point, all that’s left to do before installing WordPress is to make some changes to your Apache configuration in order to allow the CMS to function smoothly.

      Step 3 — Adjusting Apache's Configuration to Allow for .htaccess Overrides and Rewrites

      With the additional PHP extensions installed and ready for use, the next thing to do is to make a few changes to your Apache configuration. Based on the prerequisite tutorials, you should have a configuration file for your site in the /etc/apache2/sites-available/ directory. We'll use /etc/apache2/sites-available/wordpress.conf as an example here, but you should substitute the path to your configuration file where appropriate.

      Additionally, we will use /var/www/wordpress as the root directory of our WordPress install. You should use the web root specified in your own configuration.

      Note: It's possible you are using the 000-default.conf default configuration (with /var/www/html as your web root). This is fine to use if you're only going to host one website on this server. If not, it's best to split the necessary configuration into logical chunks, one file per site.

      Currently, the use of .htaccess files is disabled. WordPress and many WordPress plugins use these files extensively for in-directory tweaks to the web server's behavior.

      Open the Apache configuration file for your website. Note that if you have an existing Apache configuration file for your website, this file’s name will be different:

      • sudo nano /etc/apache2/sites-available/wordpress.conf

      To allow .htaccess files, you’ll need to add a Directory block pointing to your document root with an AllowOverride directive within it. Add the following block of text inside the VirtualHost block in your configuration file, being sure to use the correct web root directory:

      /etc/apache2/sites-available/wordpress.conf

      <Directory /var/www/wordpress/>
          AllowOverride All
      </Directory>
      

      When you are finished, save and close the file.

      Next, enable the rewrite module in order to utilize the WordPress permalink feature:

      Before implementing the changes you've made, check to make sure that you haven't made any syntax errors:

      • sudo apache2ctl configtest

      If your configuration file’s syntax is correct, you’ll see the following in your output:

      Output

      Syntax OK

      If this command reports any errors, go back and check that you haven’t made any syntax errors in your configuration file. Otherwise, restart Apache to implement the changes:

      • sudo systemctl restart apache2

      Next, we will download and set up WordPress itself.

      Step 4 — Downloading WordPress

      Now that your server software is configured, you can download and set up WordPress. For security reasons in particular, it is always recommended to get the latest version of WordPress directly from their site.

      Note: We will use curl to download WordPress, but this program may not be installed by default on your Debian server. To install it, run:

      Change into a writable directory and then download the compressed release by typing:

      • cd /tmp
      • curl -O https://wordpress.org/latest.tar.gz

      Extract the compressed file to create the WordPress directory structure:

      We will move these files into our document root momentarily. Before we do, though, add a dummy .htaccess file so that this will be available for WordPress to use later.

      Create the file by typing:

      • touch /tmp/wordpress/.htaccess

      Then copy over the sample configuration file to the filename that WordPress actually reads:

      • cp /tmp/wordpress/wp-config-sample.php /tmp/wordpress/wp-config.php

      Additionally, create the upgrade directory so that WordPress won't run into permissions issues when trying to do this on its own following an update to its software:

      • mkdir /tmp/wordpress/wp-content/upgrade

      Then, copy the entire contents of the directory into your document root. Notice that the following command includes a dot at the end of the source directory to indicate that everything within the directory should be copied, including hidden files (like the .htaccess file you created):

      • sudo cp -a /tmp/wordpress/. /var/www/wordpress

      With that, you’ve successfully installed WordPress onto your web server and performed some of the initial configuration steps. Next, we’ll discuss some further configuration changes that will give WordPress the privileges it needs to function as well as access to the MariaDB database and user account you created previously.

      Step 5 — Configuring the WordPress Directory

      Before we can go through the web-based setup process for WordPress, we need to adjust some items in our WordPress directory.

      Start by giving ownership of all the files to the www-data user and group. This is the user that the Apache web server runs as, and Apache will need to be able to read and write WordPress files in order to serve the website and perform automatic updates.

      Update the ownership with chown:

      • sudo chown -R www-data:www-data /var/www/wordpress

      Next we will run two find commands to set the correct permissions on the WordPress directories and files:

      • sudo find /var/www/wordpress/ -type d -exec chmod 750 {} ;
      • sudo find /var/www/wordpress/ -type f -exec chmod 640 {} ;

      These should be a reasonable permissions set to start with, although some plugins and procedures might require additional tweaks.

      Following this, you will need to make some changes to the main WordPress configuration file.

      When you open the file, your first objective will be to adjust some secret keys to provide some security for your installation. WordPress provides a secure generator for these values so that you do not have to try to come up with good values on your own. These are only used internally, so it won't hurt usability to have complex, secure values here.

      To grab secure values from the WordPress secret key generator, type:

      • curl -s https://api.wordpress.org/secret-key/1.1/salt/

      You will get back unique values that look something like this:

      Warning! It is important that you request unique values each time. Do NOT copy the values shown below!

      Output

      define('AUTH_KEY', '1jl/vqfs<XhdXoAPz9 DO NOT COPY THESE VALUES c_j{iwqD^<+c9.k<J@4H'); define('SECURE_AUTH_KEY', 'E2N-h2]Dcvp+aS/p7X DO NOT COPY THESE VALUES {Ka(f;rv?Pxf})CgLi-3'); define('LOGGED_IN_KEY', 'W(50,{W^,OPB%PB<JF DO NOT COPY THESE VALUES 2;y&,2m%3]R6DUth[;88'); define('NONCE_KEY', 'll,4UC)7ua+8<!4VM+ DO NOT COPY THESE VALUES #`DXF+[$atzM7 o^-C7g'); define('AUTH_SALT', 'koMrurzOA+|L_lG}kf DO NOT COPY THESE VALUES 07VC*Lj*lD&?3w!BT#-'); define('SECURE_AUTH_SALT', 'p32*p,]z%LZ+pAu:VY DO NOT COPY THESE VALUES C-?y+K0DK_+F|0h{!_xY'); define('LOGGED_IN_SALT', 'i^/G2W7!-1H2OQ+t$3 DO NOT COPY THESE VALUES t6**bRVFSD[Hi])-qS`|'); define('NONCE_SALT', 'Q6]U:K?j4L%Z]}h^q7 DO NOT COPY THESE VALUES 1% ^qUswWgn+6&xqHN&%');

      These are configuration lines that you will paste directly into your configuration file to set secure keys. Copy the output you received to your clipboard, and then open the WordPress configuration file located in your document root:

      • sudo nano /var/www/wordpress/wp-config.php

      Find the section that contains the dummy values for those settings. It will look something like this:

      /var/www/wordpress/wp-config.php

      . . .
      
      define('AUTH_KEY',         'put your unique phrase here');
      define('SECURE_AUTH_KEY',  'put your unique phrase here');
      define('LOGGED_IN_KEY',    'put your unique phrase here');
      define('NONCE_KEY',        'put your unique phrase here');
      define('AUTH_SALT',        'put your unique phrase here');
      define('SECURE_AUTH_SALT', 'put your unique phrase here');
      define('LOGGED_IN_SALT',   'put your unique phrase here');
      define('NONCE_SALT',       'put your unique phrase here');
      
      . . .
      

      Delete these lines and paste in the values you copied from the command line:

      /var/www/wordpress/wp-config.php

      . . .
      
      define('AUTH_KEY',         'VALUES COPIED FROM THE COMMAND LINE');
      define('SECURE_AUTH_KEY',  'VALUES COPIED FROM THE COMMAND LINE');
      define('LOGGED_IN_KEY',    'VALUES COPIED FROM THE COMMAND LINE');
      define('NONCE_KEY',        'VALUES COPIED FROM THE COMMAND LINE');
      define('AUTH_SALT',        'VALUES COPIED FROM THE COMMAND LINE');
      define('SECURE_AUTH_SALT', 'VALUES COPIED FROM THE COMMAND LINE');
      define('LOGGED_IN_SALT',   'VALUES COPIED FROM THE COMMAND LINE');
      define('NONCE_SALT',       'VALUES COPIED FROM THE COMMAND LINE');
      
      . . .
      

      Next, modify the database connection settings at the top of the file. You need to adjust the database name, the database user, and the associated password that you’ve configured within MariaDB.

      The other change you must make is to set the method that WordPress should use to write to the filesystem. Since we've given the web server permission to write where it needs to, we can explicitly set the filesystem method to "direct". Failure to set this with our current settings would result in WordPress prompting for FTP credentials when you perform certain actions.

      This setting can be added below the database connection settings, or anywhere else in the file:

      /var/www/wordpress/wp-config.php

      . . .
      
      define('DB_NAME', 'wordpress');
      
      /** MySQL database username */
      define('DB_USER', 'wordpress_user');
      
      /** MySQL database password */
      define('DB_PASSWORD', 'password');
      
      . . .
      
      define('FS_METHOD', 'direct');
      

      Save and close the file when you are finished. Finally, you can finish installing and configuring WordPress by accessing it through your web browser.

      Step 6 — Completing the Installation Through the Web Interface

      Now that the server configuration is complete, we can complete the installation through the web interface.

      In your web browser, navigate to your server's domain name or public IP address:

      https://server_domain_or_IP
      

      Select the language you would like to use:

      WordPress language selection

      Next, you will come to the main setup page. Select a name for your WordPress site and choose a username (it is recommended not to choose something like "admin" for security purposes). A strong password is generated automatically. Save this password or select an alternative strong password.

      Enter your email address and select whether you want to discourage search engines from indexing your site:

      WordPress setup installation

      When ready, click the Install WordPress button. You’ll be taken to a page that prompts you to log in:

      WordPress login prompt

      Once you log in, you will be taken to the WordPress administration dashboard:

      WordPress login prompt

      From the dashboard, you can begin making changes to your site’s theme and publishing content.

      Conclusion

      WordPress should be installed and ready to use! Some common next steps are to choose the permalinks setting for your posts (can be found in Settings > Permalinks) or to select a new theme (in Appearance > Themes). If this is your first time using WordPress, explore the interface a bit to get acquainted with your new CMS, or check the First Steps with WordPress guide on their official documentation.



      Source link

      How To Install WordPress with LEMP (Nginx, MariaDB and PHP) on Debian 10


      Introduction

      WordPress is the most popular CMS (content management system) on the internet. It allows you to easily set up flexible blogs and websites on top of a MySQL-based backend with PHP processing. WordPress has seen incredible adoption and is a great choice for getting a website up and running quickly. After setup, almost all administration can be done through the web frontend.

      In this guide, we’ll focus on getting a WordPress instance set up on a LEMP stack (Linux, Nginx, MariaDB, and PHP) on a Debian 10 server.

      Prerequisites

      In order to complete this tutorial, you will need access to a Debian 10 server.

      You will need to perform the following tasks before you can start this guide:

      • Create a sudo user on your server: We will be completing the steps in this guide using a non-root user with sudo privileges. You can create a user with sudo privileges by following our Debian 10 initial server setup guide.
      • Install a LEMP stack: WordPress will need a web server, a database, and PHP in order to correctly function. Setting up a LEMP stack (Linux, Nginx, MariaDB, and PHP) fulfills all of these requirements. Follow this guide to install and configure this software.
      • Secure your site with SSL: WordPress serves dynamic content and handles user authentication and authorization. TLS/SSL is the technology that allows you to encrypt the traffic from your site so that your connection is secure. This tutorial will assume that you have a domain name for your blog. You can use Let’s Encrypt to get a free SSL certificate for your domain. Follow our Let’s Encrypt guide for Nginx to set this up.

      When you are finished with the setup steps, log into your server as your sudo user and continue below.

      Step 1 — Creating a Database and User for WordPress

      WordPress needs a MySQL-based database to store and manage site and user information. Our setup uses MariaDB, a community fork of the original MySQL project by Oracle. MariaDB is currently the default MySQL-compatible database server available on debian-based package manager repositories.

      To get started, log into the MariaDB root (administrative) account. If MariaDB is configured to use the auth_socket authentication plugin, which is the default, you can log into the MariaDB administrative account using sudo:

      If you changed the authentication method to use a password for the MariaDB root account, use the following format instead:

      You will be prompted for the password you set for the MariaDB root account.

      First, we can create a separate database that WordPress can control. You can name this whatever you would like, but we will be using wordpress in this guide to keep it simple. You can create the database for WordPress by typing:

      • CREATE DATABASE wordpress DEFAULT CHARACTER SET utf8 COLLATE utf8_unicode_ci;

      Next, we are going to create a separate MariaDB user account that we will use exclusively to operate on our new database. Creating one-function databases and accounts is a good idea from a management and security standpoint. We will use the name wordpress_user in this guide. Feel free to change this if you'd like.

      The following command will create this account, set a password, and grant access to the database we created. Remember to choose a strong password for your database user:

      • GRANT ALL ON wordpress.* TO 'wordpress_user'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'password';

      You now have a database and a user account, each made specifically for WordPress. We need to flush the privileges so that the current instance of the database server knows about the recent changes we've made:

      Exit out of MariaDB by typing:

      The MariaDB session will exit, returning you to the regular Linux shell.

      Step 2 — Installing Additional PHP Extensions

      When setting up our LEMP stack, we only required a very minimal set of extensions in order to get PHP to communicate with MariaDB. WordPress and many of its plugins leverage additional PHP extensions.

      We can download and install some of the most popular PHP extensions for use with WordPress by typing:

      • sudo apt update
      • sudo apt install php-curl php-gd php-intl php-mbstring php-soap php-xml php-xmlrpc php-zip

      Note: Each WordPress plugin has its own set of requirements. Some may require additional PHP packages to be installed. Check your plugin documentation to discover its PHP requirements.

      When you are finished installing the extensions, restart the PHP-FPM process so that the running PHP processor can leverage the newly installed features:

      • sudo systemctl restart php7.3-fpm.service

      We now have all of the necessary PHP extensions installed on the server.

      Step 3 — Configuring Nginx

      Next, we will be making a few minor adjustments to our Nginx server block files. Based on the prerequisite tutorials, you should have a configuration file for your site in the /etc/nginx/sites-available/ directory configured to respond to your server's domain name and protected by a TLS/SSL certificate. We'll use /etc/nginx/sites-available/your_domain as an example here, but you should substitute the path to your configuration file where appropriate.

      Additionally, we will use /var/www/your_domain as the root directory of our WordPress install. You should use the web root specified in your own configuration.

      Note: It's possible you are using the /etc/nginx/sites-available/default default configuration (with /var/www/html as your web root). This is fine to use if you're only going to host one website on this server. If not, it's best to split the necessary configuration into logical chunks, one file per site.

      Open your site's Nginx configuration file with sudo privileges to begin:

      • sudo nano /etc/nginx/sites-available/your_domain

      We need to add a few location directives within our main server block. After adding SSL certificates your config may have two server blocks. If so, find the one that contains root /var/www/your_domain and your other location directives and implement your changes there.

      Start by creating exact-matching location blocks for requests to /favicon.ico and /robots.txt, both of which we do not want to log requests for.

      We will use a regular expression location to match any requests for static files. We will again turn off the logging for these requests and will mark them as highly cacheable since these are typically expensive resources to serve. You can adjust this static files list to contain any other file extensions your site may use:

      /etc/nginx/sites-available/your_domain

      server {
          . . .
      
          location = /favicon.ico { log_not_found off; access_log off; }
          location = /robots.txt { log_not_found off; access_log off; allow all; }
          location ~* .(css|gif|ico|jpeg|jpg|js|png)$ {
              expires max;
              log_not_found off;
          }
          . . .
      }
      

      Inside of the existing location / block, we need to adjust the try_files list so that instead of returning a 404 error as the default option, control is passed to the index.php file with the request arguments.

      This should look something like this:

      /etc/nginx/sites-available/wordpress

      server {
          . . .
          location / {
              #try_files $uri $uri/ =404;
              try_files $uri $uri/ /index.php$is_args$args;
          }
          . . .
      }
      

      When you are finished, save and close the file.

      Now, we can check our configuration for syntax errors by typing:

      If no errors were reported, reload Nginx by typing:

      • sudo systemctl reload nginx

      Next, we will download and set up WordPress itself.

      Step 4 — Downloading WordPress

      Now that our server software is configured, we can download and set up WordPress. For security reasons in particular, it is always recommended to get the latest version of WordPress from their site.

      Change into a writable directory and then download the compressed release by typing:

      • cd /tmp
      • curl -LO https://wordpress.org/latest.tar.gz

      Extract the compressed file to create the WordPress directory structure:

      We will be moving these files into our document root momentarily. Before we do that, we can copy over the sample configuration file to the filename that WordPress actually reads:

      • cp /tmp/wordpress/wp-config-sample.php /tmp/wordpress/wp-config.php

      Now, we can copy the entire contents of the directory into our document root. We are using the -a flag to make sure our permissions are maintained. We are using a dot at the end of our source directory to indicate that everything within the directory should be copied, including any hidden files:

      • sudo cp -a /tmp/wordpress/. /var/www/your_domain

      Now that our files are in place, we'll assign ownership them to the www-data user and group. This is the user and group that Nginx runs as, and Nginx will need to be able to read and write WordPress files in order to serve the website and perform automatic updates.

      • sudo chown -R www-data:www-data /var/www/your_domain

      Our files are now in our server's document root and have the correct ownership, but we still need to complete some more configuration.

      Step 5 — Setting up the WordPress Configuration File

      Next, we need to make a few changes to the main WordPress configuration file.

      When we open the file, our first order of business will be to adjust the secret keys to provide some security for our installation. WordPress provides a secure generator for these values so that you do not have to try to come up with good values on your own. These are only used internally, so it won't hurt usability to have complex, secure values here.

      To grab secure values from the WordPress secret key generator, type:

      • curl -s https://api.wordpress.org/secret-key/1.1/salt/

      You will get back unique values that look something like this:

      Warning: It is important that you request unique values each time. Do NOT copy the values shown below!

      Output

      define('AUTH_KEY', '1jl/vqfs<XhdXoAPz9 DO NOT COPY THESE VALUES c_j{iwqD^<+c9.k<J@4H'); define('SECURE_AUTH_KEY', 'E2N-h2]Dcvp+aS/p7X DO NOT COPY THESE VALUES {Ka(f;rv?Pxf})CgLi-3'); define('LOGGED_IN_KEY', 'W(50,{W^,OPB%PB<JF DO NOT COPY THESE VALUES 2;y&,2m%3]R6DUth[;88'); define('NONCE_KEY', 'll,4UC)7ua+8<!4VM+ DO NOT COPY THESE VALUES #`DXF+[$atzM7 o^-C7g'); define('AUTH_SALT', 'koMrurzOA+|L_lG}kf DO NOT COPY THESE VALUES 07VC*Lj*lD&?3w!BT#-'); define('SECURE_AUTH_SALT', 'p32*p,]z%LZ+pAu:VY DO NOT COPY THESE VALUES C-?y+K0DK_+F|0h{!_xY'); define('LOGGED_IN_SALT', 'i^/G2W7!-1H2OQ+t$3 DO NOT COPY THESE VALUES t6**bRVFSD[Hi])-qS`|'); define('NONCE_SALT', 'Q6]U:K?j4L%Z]}h^q7 DO NOT COPY THESE VALUES 1% ^qUswWgn+6&xqHN&%');

      These are configuration lines that we can paste directly in our configuration file to set secure keys. Copy the output you received now.

      Now, open the WordPress configuration file:

      • nano /var/www/your_domain/wp-config.php

      Find the section that contains the dummy values for those settings. It will look something like this:

      /var/www/wordpress/wp-config.php

      . . .
      
      define('AUTH_KEY',         'put your unique phrase here');
      define('SECURE_AUTH_KEY',  'put your unique phrase here');
      define('LOGGED_IN_KEY',    'put your unique phrase here');
      define('NONCE_KEY',        'put your unique phrase here');
      define('AUTH_SALT',        'put your unique phrase here');
      define('SECURE_AUTH_SALT', 'put your unique phrase here');
      define('LOGGED_IN_SALT',   'put your unique phrase here');
      define('NONCE_SALT',       'put your unique phrase here');
      
      . . .
      

      Delete those lines and paste in the values you copied from the command line:

      /var/www/wordpress/wp-config.php

      . . .
      
      define('AUTH_KEY',         'VALUES COPIED FROM THE COMMAND LINE');
      define('SECURE_AUTH_KEY',  'VALUES COPIED FROM THE COMMAND LINE');
      define('LOGGED_IN_KEY',    'VALUES COPIED FROM THE COMMAND LINE');
      define('NONCE_KEY',        'VALUES COPIED FROM THE COMMAND LINE');
      define('AUTH_SALT',        'VALUES COPIED FROM THE COMMAND LINE');
      define('SECURE_AUTH_SALT', 'VALUES COPIED FROM THE COMMAND LINE');
      define('LOGGED_IN_SALT',   'VALUES COPIED FROM THE COMMAND LINE');
      define('NONCE_SALT',       'VALUES COPIED FROM THE COMMAND LINE');
      
      . . .
      

      Next, we need to modify some of the database connection settings at the beginning of the file. You need to adjust the database name, the database user, and the associated password that we configured within MariaDB.

      The other change we need to make is to set the method that WordPress should use to write to the filesystem. Since we've given the web server permission to write where it needs to, we can explicitly set the filesystem method to "direct". Failure to set this with our current settings would result in WordPress prompting for FTP credentials when we perform some actions. This setting can be added below the database connection settings, or anywhere else in the file:

      /var/www/wordpress/wp-config.php

      . . .
      
      define('DB_NAME', 'wordpress');
      
      /** MySQL database username */
      define('DB_USER', 'wordpress_user');
      
      /** MySQL database password */
      define('DB_PASSWORD', 'password');
      
      . . .
      
      define('FS_METHOD', 'direct');
      

      Save and close the file when you are finished.

      Step 6 — Completing the Installation Through the Web Interface

      Now that the server configuration is complete, we can finish up the installation through the web interface.

      In your web browser, navigate to your server's domain name or public IP address:

      http://server_domain_or_IP
      

      Select the language you would like to use:

      WordPress language selection

      Next, you will come to the main setup page.

      Select a name for your WordPress site and choose a username (it is recommended not to choose something like "admin" for security purposes). A strong password is generated automatically. Save this password or select an alternative strong password.

      Enter your email address and select whether you want to discourage search engines from indexing your site:

      WordPress setup installation

      When you click ahead, you will be taken to a page that prompts you to log in:

      WordPress login prompt

      Once you log in, you will be taken to the WordPress administration dashboard:

      WordPress admin panel

      Conclusion

      WordPress should be installed and ready to use! Some common next steps are to choose the permalinks setting for your posts (can be found in Settings > Permalinks) or to select a new theme (in Appearance > Themes). If this is your first time using WordPress, explore the interface a bit to get acquainted with your new CMS, or check the First Steps with WordPress guide on their official documentation.



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      How to Pick a WordPress Theme


      Choosing which theme to use for your WordPress website is one of the most crucial decisions you’ll make. In most cases, you’ll stick with the same template for a long time, so it’s not a choice you should take lightly.

      When it comes to WordPress themes, you have thousands of options. Whatever type of website you want to build, there’s likely a perfect theme for it out there. The right theme won’t only look amazing, but will also provide you with useful functionality.

      In this article, we’ll go over what types of questions you should ask when you’re checking out a new theme and explain what to look for when making your selection. Let’s get right to it!

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      Why Your Choice of WordPress Theme Matters

      If you have any friends who use WordPress (and the numbers say you probably do), ask them how long they’ve been using their current theme. In most cases, the answer will number in years. Changing your WordPress theme can be tricky, as it will radically alter the appearance and even the functionality of your site.

      The WordPress theme directory.

      Therefore, it’s best to avoid doing it if you can. That means you’ll probably be using the theme you select for many years to come. Your mission: to choose a WordPress theme that has a classic design, suits your site’s goals, and makes upkeep easy. 

      Sound like a big undertaking? Let’s break down the process of selecting a theme into easy-to-handle steps.

      7 Questions to Ask When Looking for a WordPress Theme

      As you might expect, picking out a WordPress theme can take a while. You’ll need to ask yourself several key questions before you get started, so you’ll know exactly what to look for.

      1. What Is My Site’s Purpose?

      No two WordPress themes are the same. Additionally, most themes are built with very specific types of websites in mind. Therefore, you’ll need to have an idea of what goals you’re trying to accomplish with your site.

      What is the site for? To be honest with yourself, you’ll need to be clear on what you’re trying to do with the website. Is it a blog or a community site or a collection of news? You can’t pick the right theme if you don’t know what you want things to look like. Do you need a static front page? Do you need to show a featured post and then a slider? Do you really need that slider? 

      — Mika Epstein, DreamHost WordPress Expert

      2. Who Is My Audience?

      Knowing what type of site you want to build also helps you determine who its audience will be. The more you know about your audience, the easier it will be to design a website that gets their attention.

      Identifying your audience includes researching to find out what their interests are, what types of designs might appeal to them, what features they’ll expect from your website, and more. At this stage, it’s smart to put together a comprehensive target market profile.

      3. What Functions Does My Site Need?

      Every website requires different functionality. For a blog, you’ll need a way for visitors to find posts, comment on your publications, locate related content, and access your social media channels. With an online store, you’ll have to be able to showcase product descriptions and pictures, let customers leave reviews, and so on.

      An example of an e-commerce theme.

      With WordPress, you’ll rely on plugins to implement some of that functionality. However, choosing a theme that includes the features you need out of the box can be a significant timesaver.

      4. What Do I Want My Site To Look Like?

      Usually, the first thing you’ll notice about a theme is what it looks like, and if it fits with your idea of what you want for your website. In most cases, you’ll need to make some changes to any theme you choose, to get it looking just right.

      The WordPress Customizer.

       

      However, choosing a theme that’s as close to your vision as possible will make your job a lot easier. You’ll also want a style that’s thematically appropriate for your site and is likely to appeal to your target audience.

      5. How Fast Should My Site Load?

      If there’s one thing users hate, it’s a slow website. There are a lot of factors that can affect your site’s speed, but the theme you pick plays a significant role. Some themes are better optimized than others, so they tend to be faster across the board.

      It can be hard to gauge a theme’s level of optimization without taking it for a test drive. Usually, your best bet is to check user reviews and see if you can find any comments about loading times. This will give you some idea of what to expect.

      6. What Is My Budget?

      When it comes to WordPress themes, one of the most critical decisions you need to make is whether to go with a free or a premium option. Premium themes tend to pack in a lot more functionality to justify their price tags.

      Keep in mind, however, that premium themes aren’t always better. For most types of websites, you’ll find there are fantastic free options that provide everything you need to get started.

      7. What Do My Competitors’ Sites Look Like?

      Finally, it’s essential to have an idea of what your competitors are doing. That includes everything from the quality of their content to how they interact with visitors and what their websites look like.

      In many industries, you’ll find that websites tend to share very similar styles. If your audience expects a specific aesthetic, you’ll need to consider whether you want to provide what they’re looking for or try something unexpected.

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      9 Things to Look for When Picking a WordPress Theme

      Although every WordPress theme is unique, it’s not difficult to spot the best options if you know what to look for. Now, let’s go over some of the criteria you need to keep in mind when selecting your theme.

      1. Simple Layout

      Often, you’ll see WordPress themes that showcase an incredibly intricate layout to draw potential users in. Then, once you install the theme, you find out it looks nothing like the demo site. Personally, we’re fans of themes that feature clean lines and simple design. After all, you’ll know they can look great without the need to spend hours tweaking every setting.

      2. Responsive Design

      These days, mobile users outnumber all other types of browsers. This means that it is essential for your website to look and function well on all mobile devices and screens.

      A theme on multiple devices.

      Therefore, it’s worth looking for quality, responsive WordPress themes right out of the gate. If your theme includes a fully responsive layout, you don’t have to go to lengths to ensure that mobile users can enjoy the experience.

      3. Browser Compatibility

      Although most people use the same popular browsers — such as Chrome, Firefox, and Safari — they’re far from the only options. There are dozens of browsers you can choose from, and not all of them render content and images in the same way. Good developers will keep this in mind, and ensure that their themes play nicely with most browsers.

      4. Supported WordPress Plugins

      Plugin compatibility issues can manifest in many ways. If you are picky about the theme and plugins you use, these problems should be few and far between. However, if you have specific plugins in mind for powering key functionality on your website, it’s worth checking to make sure your top theme options are compatible with them.

      E-commerce is also a popular niche for WordPress users, and WooCommerce is the number one plugin for implementing that functionality. As such, WooCommerce integration via an e-commerce theme is a key consideration if you want to start an online store. You’re essentially looking for dedicated inner pages and templates to showcase your products seamlessly. Many developers promote that their e-commerce themes are ‘WooCommerce ready,’ so if you see this, you should be prepared to place the theme under further scrutiny. 

      5. Translation Ready

      There are a lot of tools you can use to translate your WordPress pages and create a multilingual website. However, for this to work, you’ll want to use a theme that’s translation-friendly.

      A translation-ready theme.

      That means looking for a theme you can use in conjunction with translation plugins, so you don’t have to go through the process manually.

      6. Page Builders & New Block Editor Compatibility

      These days, a large part of the WordPress community is embracing page builders. WordPress itself is moving in that direction with the new Block Editor. So it’s important that whichever theme you choose works well with drag-and-drop page builders. This can significantly simplify the process of customizing your website.

      7. Support Options

      If you run into any issues with your theme, it’s always nice to know that you can turn to its developers for advice on how to solve it. Ideally, your theme’s developers should provide you with multiple support channels, and should be active when it comes to helping their users.

      8. SEO Friendly

      If you want search engines to rank your site highly, then you’ll have to play by their rules. That means following Search Engine Optimization (SEO) best practices and using a theme that does so as well. An SEO-friendly theme should offer a mix of features including reliable performance, mobile responsiveness, support for Schema data, and more.

      9. Ratings and Reviews

      A theme’s reviews and ratings are a useful indicator of what to expect. When it comes to popular themes, you’d be surprised at how many user ratings you can find.

      Reviews of a WordPress theme.

      To get the full picture, we’d recommend looking beyond each theme’s website and doing some quick searches for third-party reviews, which tend to be more thorough and honest.

      Where to Find Quality Themes

      There are a lot of places to look for top-notch WordPress themes. However, these two sites are an excellent way to get started:

      • WordPress.org: The official WordPress website also doubles as the largest repository of free themes, with thousands of options to pick from. Moreover, WordPress.org maintains very high standards for the themes it publishes.
      • ThemeForest: There are a lot of premium theme marketplaces, but sites like ThemeForest have a clear lead when it comes to inventory. There are thousands of choices and most of the popular premium WordPress themes can be found there.

      Most premium theme developers also make sales through their own websites. There are a lot of smaller marketplaces that focus on specific types of themes as well. Other interesting options you might want to check out include CSSIgniter and StudioPress.

      Every single theme on WordPress.org is checked when it’s submitted. They’re exceptionally good about it. Most themes there are safe as houses to use. And they’re free! 

      — Mika Epstein

      How to Install a Theme in WordPress

      Once you finally settle on the perfect theme, it’s time to go ahead and set it up. Fortunately, WordPress makes that a very simple process.

      To install a theme, access your WordPress dashboard and navigate to the Theme > Appearance tab. Once there, select the Add New button at the top of the page.

      Installing a WordPress theme.

      WordPress will enable you to upload the .zip file you received after purchasing and/or downloading whichever theme you chose. When the file is uploaded, all you have to do is go to the Themes tab and hit the Activate button, and your new theme is ready to go.

      Ready to Pick a WordPress Theme?

      Themes are one of the key features that make WordPress an amazing platform. You have literally thousands of themes to choose from. Even better, many themes offer more than just aesthetics — they’ll also include features to improve your site.

      When it comes to themes, there’s no single option that’s perfect for every user or website. So we recommend that you keep an open mind, remember all the criteria we’ve discussed in this article, and test each theme you consider thoroughly before you decide which one to settle down with.

      Are you ready to start using your new theme? You’ll first need to pick a web host and then install WordPress. Fortunately, we have plenty of plans for WordPress users to choose from!



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