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      Use journalctl to View Your System's Logs


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      What is journalctl?

      journalctl is a command for viewing logs collected by systemd. The systemd-journald service is responsible for systemd’s log collection, and it retrieves messages from the kernel, systemd services, and other sources.

      These logs are gathered in a central location, which makes them easy to review. The log records in the journal are structured and indexed, and as a result journalctl is able to present your log information in a variety of useful formats.

      Using journalctl for the First Time

      Run the journalctl command without any arguments to view all the logs in your journal:

      journalctl
      

      If you do not see output, try running it with sudo:

      sudo journalctl
      

      If your Linux user does not have sudo privileges, add your user to the sudo group.

      Default Log Format and Ordering

      journalctl will display your logs in a format similar to the traditional syslog format. Each line starts with the date (in the server’s local time), followed by the server’s hostname, the process name, and the message for the log.

        
      Aug 31 12:00:25 debian sshd[15844]: pam_unix(sshd:session): session opened for user example_user by (uid=0)
      
      

      Your logs will be displayed from oldest to newest. To reverse this order and display the newest messages at the top, use the -r flag:

      journalctl -r
      

      Paging through Your Logs

      journalctl pipes its output to the less command, which shows your logs one page at a time in your terminal. If a log line exceeds the horizontal width of your terminal window, you can use the left and right arrow keys to scroll horizontally and see the rest of the line:

      Furthermore, your logs can be navigated and searched by using all the same key commands available in less:

      Key command Action
      down arrow key, enter, e, or j Move down one line.
      up arrow key, y, or k Move up one line.
      space bar Move down one page.
      b Move up one page.
      right arrow key Scroll horizontally to the right.
      left arrow key Scroll horizontally to the left.
      g Go to the first line.
      G Go to the last line.
      10g Go to the 10th line. Enter a different number to go to other lines.
      50p or 50% Go to the line half-way through the output. Enter a different number to go to other percentage positions.
      /search term Search forward from the current position for the search term string.
      ?search term Search backward from the current position for the search term string.
      n When searching, go to the next occurrence.
      N When searching, go to the previous occurrence.
      m<c> Set a mark, which saves your current position. Enter a single character in place of <c> to label the mark with that character.
      '<c> Return to a mark, where <c> is the single character label for the mark. Note that ' is the single-quote.
      q Quit less

      View journalctl without Paging

      To send your logs to standard output and avoid paging them, use the --no-pager option:

      journalctl --no-pager
      

      It’s not recommended that you do this without first filtering down the number of logs shown.

      Monitor New Log Messages

      Run journalctl with the -f option to view a live log of new messages as they are collected:

      journalctl -f
      

      The key commands from less are not available while in this mode. Enter Control-C on your keyboard to return to your command prompt from this mode.

      Filter journalctl Output

      In addition to searching your logs with the less key commands, you can invoke journalctl with options that filter your log messages before they are displayed.

      These filters can be used with the normal paged display, and with the --no-pager and -f options. Filters of different types can also be combined together to further narrow the output.

      Show Logs within a Time Range

      Use the --since option to show logs after a specified date and time:

      journalctl --since "2018-08-30 14:10:10"
      

      Use the --until option to show logs up to a specified date and time:

      journalctl --until "2018-09-02 12:05:50"
      

      Combine these to show logs between the two times:

      journalctl --since "2018-08-30 14:10:10" --until "2018-09-02 12:05:50"
      

      Dates and times should be specified in the YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS format. If the time is omitted (i.e. only the YYYY-MM-DD date is specified), then the time is assumed to be 00:00:00.

      journalctl can also accept some alternative terms when specifying dates:

      • The terms yesterday, today, and tomorrow are recognized. When using one of these terms, the time is assumed to be 00:00:00.

      • Terms like 1 day ago or 3 hours ago are recognized.

      • The - and + symbols can be used to specify relative dates. For example, -1h15min specifies 1 hour 15 minutes in the past, and +3h30min specifies 3 hours 30 minutes in the future.

      Show Logs for a Specific Boot

      Use the -b option to show logs for the last boot of your server:

      journalctl -b
      

      Specify an integer offset for the -b option to refer to a previous boot. For example, journalctl -b -1 show logs from the previous boot, journalctl -b -2 shows logs from the boot before the previous boot, and so on.

      List the available boots:

      journalctl --list-boots
      

      Each boot listed in the output from journalctl --list-boots command includes a 32-bit boot ID. You can supply a boot ID with the -b option; for example:

      journalctl -b a09dce7b2c1c458d861d7d0f0a7c8c65
      

      If no previous boots are listed, your journald configuration may not be set up to persist log storage. Review the Persist Your Logs section for instructions on how to change this configuration.

      Show Logs for a systemd Service

      Pass the name of a systemd unit with the -u option to show logs for that service:

      journalctl -u ssh
      

      View Kernel Messages

      Supply the -k option to show only kernel messages:

      journalctl -k
      

      Change the Log Output Format

      Because the log records for systemd’s journals are structured, journalctl can show your logs in different formats. Here are a few of the formats available:

      Format Name Description
      short The default option, displays logs in the traditional syslog format.
      verbose Displays all information in the log record structure.
      json Displays logs in JSON format, with one log per line.
      json-pretty Displays logs in JSON format across multiple lines for better readability.
      cat Displays only the message from each log without any other metadata.

      Pass the format name with the -o option to display your logs in that format. For example:

      journalctl -o json-pretty
      

      Anatomy of a Log Record

      The following is an example of the structured data of a log record, as displayed by journalctl -o verbose. For more information on this data structure, review the man page for journalctl:

        
      Fri 2018-08-31 12:00:25.543177 EDT [s=0b341b44cf194c9ca45c99101497befa;i=70d5;b=a09dce7b2c1c458d861d7d0f0a7c8c65;m=9fb524664c4;t=57517dfc5f57d;x=97097ca5ede0dfd6]
          _BOOT_ID=a09dce7b2c1c458d861d7d0f0a7c8c65
          _MACHINE_ID=1009f49fff8fe746a5111e1a062f4848
          _HOSTNAME=debian
          _TRANSPORT=syslog
          PRIORITY=6
          SYSLOG_IDENTIFIER=sshd
          _UID=0
          _GID=0
          _COMM=sshd
          _EXE=/usr/sbin/sshd
          _CAP_EFFECTIVE=3fffffffff
          _SYSTEMD_CGROUP=/system.slice/ssh.service
          _SYSTEMD_UNIT=ssh.service
          _SYSTEMD_SLICE=system.slice
          SYSLOG_FACILITY=10
          SYSLOG_PID=15844
          _PID=15844
          _CMDLINE=sshd: example_user [priv
          MESSAGE=pam_unix(sshd:session): session opened for user example_user by (uid=0)
          _AUDIT_SESSION=30791
          _AUDIT_LOGINUID=1000
          _SOURCE_REALTIME_TIMESTAMP=1536120282543177
      
      

      Note

      In addition to the types of filters listed in the previous section, you can also filter logs by specifying values for the variables in the log record structure. For example, journalctl _UID=0 will show logs for user ID 0 (i.e. the root user).

      Persist Your Logs

      systemd-journald can be configured to persist your systemd logs on disk, and it also provides controls to manage the total size of your archived logs. These settings are defined in /etc/systemd/journald.conf.

      To start persisting your logs, uncomment the Storage line in /etc/systemd/journald.conf and set its value to persistent. Your archived logs will be held in /var/log/journal. If this directory does not already exist in your file system, systemd-journald will create it.

      After updating your journald.conf, load the change:

      sudo systemctl restart systemd-journald
      

      Control the Size of Your Logs’ Disk Usage

      The following settings in journald.conf control how large your logs’ size can grow to when persisted on disk:

      Setting Description
      SystemMaxUse The total maximum disk space that can be used for your logs.
      SystemKeepFree The minimum amount of disk space that should be kept free for uses outside of systemd-journald’s logging functions.
      SystemMaxFileSize The maximum size of an individual journal file.
      SystemMaxFiles The maximum number of journal files that can be kept on disk.

      systemd-journald will respect both SystemMaxUse and SystemKeepFree, and it will set your journals’ disk usage to meet whichever setting results in a smaller size.

      To view your default limits, run:

      sudo journalctl -u systemd-journald
      

      You should see a line similar to the following which describes the current limits in place:

        
      Permanent journal is using 32.0M (max allowed 2.3G, trying to leave 3.5G free of 21.2G available → current limit 2.3G).
      
      

      Note

      A parallel group of settings is used when journald.conf is set to only persist the journals in memory (instead of on disk): RuntimeMaxUse, RuntimeKeepFree, RuntimeMaxFileSize, and RuntimeMaxFiles.

      Manually Clean Up Archived Logs

      journalctl offers functions for immediately removing archived journals on disk. Run journalctl with the --vacuum-size option to remove archived journal files until the total size of your journals is less than the specified amount. For example, the following command will reduce the size of your journals to 2GiB:

      journalctl --vacuum-size=2G
      

      Run journalctl with the --vacuum-time option to remove archived journal files with dates older than the specified relative time. For example, the following command will remove journals older than one year:

      journalctl --vacuum-time=1years
      

      Run journalctl with the --vacuum-files option to remove archived journal files until the specified number of files remains. For example, the following command removes all but the 10 most recent journal files:

      journalctl --vacuum-files=10
      

      More Information

      You may wish to consult the following resources for additional information on this topic. While these are provided in the hope that they will be useful, please note that we cannot vouch for the accuracy or timeliness of externally hosted materials.

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